Let's discuss about CDS. A new dept has been created under MoD named as Dept of military affairs (DMA). CDS will act as ex-officio secretary of this department.


Issue arising out of this design- (taken from comment on FB)
Since the Dept of Defence under Defence Secretary is still supreme with the Defence Secretary having complete authority on making defence policy and the responsibility of defence of India, it will be worth seeing how the CDS and Defence Secretary moves together. CDS will always show his domain expertise, it has to be watched if the Defence secretary surrenders or keeps his position intact. It's a fight of two personalities.


please share your views.



  • DMA will promote jointness in areas such as procurement, training and staffing.
  • effective coordination in managing the Army, the Navy and the Air Force.
  • expedite the procurement to the Indian Armed Forces.
  • The CDS is also seen as being vital to the creation of “theatre commands”, integrating tri-service assets and personnel like in the US military.

@Abraham-Maslowsaid inCS INTERVIEW 2019 PREPARATION : COMBAT:

ISRO and it's significance in achievement of SDGs and other socio-economic and technological objectives.

  • Tele-education using comm sat can help in providing quality education (SDG-4) to a large section even in remote areas.
  • Telemedicine- good health- SDG3
  • ISRO research and excellence in solar cells and Li-ion technology can help promote affordable and clean energy.
  • Resource sats (RISAT-2A, 2B) of ISRO are used for disaster mgmt ops.
    *Land information system (LIS) & Geographic information system (GIS) using CARTOSAT (cartographic application) helps in building sustainable cities.
  • HIgh speed bandwidth Comm satellites provide high speed bandwidth to village resource centre (VRC). It helps in reducing regional inequalities.
  • south asian satellite- partnership for fulfilling SDGs.

More points are welcome.


@Abraham-Maslowsaid inCS INTERVIEW 2019 PREPARATION : COMBAT:

Anti-Rape Laws and Justice delivery. (In wake of Unnao, Hyderabad & encounter and AP's Disha Act).

Demand for capital punishment in all rape related cases

  • there is no study which shows that awarding capital punishment decreases rape incidents.
  • if death penalty is awarded in all cases then the guilty may be inclined to kill the victim as punishment for both the crimes is same.

Present status of anti-rape laws

  • capital punishment is awarded in rarest of the rare cases and rape with girl child (<12 years).
  • the criminal law amendment act, of 2013 and 2019 has already provided stricter punishment in rape related crimes.

justice delivery

  • the cause of the delay in awarding the punishment is the lengthy process.
    Crime→FIR (Suspect)→Investigation→Charge Sheet (Accused)→Court trial→Conviction (Guilty)→Award of punishment (Lower courts)→HC then SC→Review petition→curative petition→mercy plea→final punishment.
  • AP's DISHA act- investigation to complete within 7 days and court trial within 14 days. But the delay can occur in other stages as well.
  • to expedite the justice delivery, vacancies of judges need to be fulfilled.


  • fake encounters to provide swift justice undermine the RoL and PNJ.
  • Justice should be rehabilitative and not retributive.
  • police resort to extra-judicial killing as an exercise of image makeover.


  • solution lies in preventing such crimes. more police trips to high crime areas can help. Also implementing Justice J S Verma committee report suggestions.
  • However, the problem lies with understaffing of police officials. a large no. of vacancies are pending. Police officials are also overburdened with as high as 16 hours job per day. Fulfilling these Vacancies and bringing the much needed police reforms can also help in gaining public confidence in police and fear in the minds of criminals.
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