Mission Mains 2021: GS 4 Ethics Discussion - ForumIAS

Mission Mains 2021: GS 4 Ethics Discussion

1. In one of the districts of a frontier state, narcotics menace has been rampant. This has resulted in money laundering, mushrooming of poppy farming, arms smuggling and near stalling of education. The system is on the verge of collapse. The situation has been further worsened by unconfirmed reports that local politicians as well as some senior police officers are providing surreptitious patronage to the drug mafia. At that point of time a woman police officer, known for her skills in handling such situations is appointed as superintendent of police to bring the situation to normalcy.
If you are the same police officer, identify the various dimensions of the crisis. Based on your understanding, suggest measures to deal with the crisis.
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2. Ethics, not capitalism, will yield profits in the long run. Analyse this statement in light of COVID pandemic.
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rashivsaid

2. Ethics, not capitalism, will yield profits in the long run. Analyse this statement in light of COVID pandemic.

The pandemic of Covid as exposed the perils of following capitalistic model of development. Prime example being USA, which is facing high number of deaths and cases. In this light, essential to view the capitalistic model popularised post 1991. 


Why capitalism led model being questioned 

1. Capitalism fuelled by globalisation ushered mobility of people across the globe. This became the cause of spread of Covid 

2. Capitalism has led to an unequal model of prosperity having negative impact during Covid. Eg The spread of Covid in slums, and difficulties faced by migrants 

 Benefits of ethics centric model 

1. One health model- inclusive and sustainable. Remedy the ills of capitalistic model by focussing simultaneously on ->Animal health, environmental cleanliness, human immunity 

2. Humanity- human centric model where priority given not to material pleasure but ease of living and happiness. Will result in 

a. Focus on primary health centre

b. Boosting education for disadvantaged sections

c. Planned urbanisation for remedying slums and migrant issues 


For yielding long term benefit, the need is to marry the above models and implement Humanistic capitalism. It will rightfully yield benefits of capitalism->generate wealth and bring about decline in poverty, create investment avenues. And also yield benefits of ethical model->sustainability via clean energy, inclusivity via upgrading capability of disadvantaged in form of education and health. 

Would you want to substantiate your answer with some actual examples here ?

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rashivsaid

2. Ethics, not capitalism, will yield profits in the long run. Analyse this statement in light of COVID pandemic.

The pandemic of Covid as exposed the perils of following capitalistic model of development. Prime example being USA, which is facing high number of deaths and cases. In this light, essential to view the capitalistic model popularised post 1991. 


Why capitalism led model being questioned 

1. Capitalism fuelled by globalisation ushered mobility of people across the globe. This became the cause of spread of Covid 

2. Capitalism has led to an unequal model of prosperity having negative impact during Covid. Eg The spread of Covid in slums, and difficulties faced by migrants 

 Benefits of ethics centric model 

1. One health model- inclusive and sustainable. Remedy the ills of capitalistic model by focussing simultaneously on ->Animal health, environmental cleanliness, human immunity 

2. Humanity- human centric model where priority given not to material pleasure but ease of living and happiness. Will result in 

a. Focus on primary health centre

b. Boosting education for disadvantaged sections

c. Planned urbanisation for remedying slums and migrant issues 


For yielding long term benefit, the need is to marry the above models and implement Humanistic capitalism. It will rightfully yield benefits of capitalism->generate wealth and bring about decline in poverty, create investment avenues. And also yield benefits of ethical model->sustainability via clean energy, inclusivity via upgrading capability of disadvantaged in form of education and health. 

Would you want to substantiate your answer with some actual examples here ?

1.  Increasing prices of hand-sanitizers forced Amazon India to take a tough stand against predatory sellers.

2. Tata Group has promised all its temporary and daily-wage earners full pay.

3. Healthcare spends of private companies as CSR - creates a healthy balance. 

I am sure we can quote many more from the current situation. 

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rashivsaid

Various dimensions 

1. Political- politics without principle as seen from nexus with criminals 

2. Economic- commerce without morality->gaining income via drugs impacting life of youth 

 ->parallel economy and loss of tax revenue 

 ->higher chance of  crisis being preceded by unemployment and decline in agriculture revenue 

3. Social- failure of public service dispensing officials in ensuring strong education infrastructure 

4. Cultural- declining societal ethics and role of parents in guiding youth 


In such a situation, following measures must be undertaken 

1. Short term- take steps to cooperate with district collector and find out holistic causes (economic and others) pushing locals to drug and arms business 

 - Use state intelligence apparatus to track key locations fuelling the drug menace and links of arms trade 

 - make small arrests of low hierarchy players for information and confessions 

2. Medium term- building trust with community to act as local intelligence and get back faith in State

 - Tying up with civil society community to raise demand side pressure for accountability to political representative. Success of this step help in making bigger arrests via intelligence gathered.

3. Long term - promote local police and empowering them with responsibility of their own locality (community policing)


It's a very well structured answer.

+  narcotics legally prohibited

Discuss social dimensions of problem and involve NGOs, Panchayat leaders

+ Reduce Demand - Drug awareness campaigns , drug de-addiction centres, counseling - to induce behavioural changes.  


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there used to be a thread on quest where we collected various examples to quote. Can't find the link to that thread, I think it's lost :(

@Neyawn @root Can you please help?

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3) What do each of the following quotations mean to you in the present context? 

- Our world is in crisis because of the absence of consciousness.



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rashivsaid

Various dimensions 

1. Political- politics without principle as seen from nexus with criminals 

2. Economic- commerce without morality->gaining income via drugs impacting life of youth 

 ->parallel economy and loss of tax revenue 

 ->higher chance of  crisis being preceded by unemployment and decline in agriculture revenue 

3. Social- failure of public service dispensing officials in ensuring strong education infrastructure 

4. Cultural- declining societal ethics and role of parents in guiding youth 


In such a situation, following measures must be undertaken 

1. Short term- take steps to cooperate with district collector and find out holistic causes (economic and others) pushing locals to drug and arms business 

 - Use state intelligence apparatus to track key locations fuelling the drug menace and links of arms trade 

 - make small arrests of low hierarchy players for information and confessions 

2. Medium term- building trust with community to act as local intelligence and get back faith in State

 - Tying up with civil society community to raise demand side pressure for accountability to political representative. Success of this step help in making bigger arrests via intelligence gathered.

3. Long term - promote local police and empowering them with responsibility of their own locality (community policing)


It's a very well structured answer.

+  narcotics legally prohibited

Discuss social dimensions of problem and involve NGOs, Panchayat leaders

+ Reduce Demand - Drug awareness campaigns , drug de-addiction centres, counseling - to induce behavioural changes.  


Some more steps which can be adopted to reduce the impact of drug menace like:-

1. Keeping a check on events like music festivals or rave parties as these events are often such places where drugs like ecstasy, mdma, etc are used for example- Sunburn Festival.

2. Undertaking a social audit in institutions such as schools and colleges to find out the scale of youth  into drug abuse if any, for example use of dope testing.

3. Promotion of Fit India movement to nudge the youth into sports and extra-curricular activities like hosting a football tournament, a natural body building competition etc.

4. Incentivising and protecting whistleblowers which may help in providing intelligence inputs which may further help in raids and seizures.

Great inputs. 

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3) What do each of the following quotations mean to you in the present context? 

- Our world is in crisis because of the absence of consciousness.



@TheNotorious @rashiv 

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rashivsaid

@TheNotorious Had they been true, I would have loved to take those two adjectives as compliments. 

If possible don’t write a structured answer, just write pointers. Aim is for your brain to get adept at thinking about diverse questions 

I agree totally. It's a brainstorming session. 

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rashivsaid

3) What do each of the following quotations mean to you in the present context? 

- Our world is in crisis because of the absence of consciousness.



The spread of Corona virus in 2020 has only compounded the impending crisis that humanity faced. From irreversible environmental damage highlighted by IPCC report, to rise in conflict in violence in Middle East ; the many crisis only made matters worse collectively.


In this light, the role of consciousness as cause of the ongoing crisis and also as a remedy is instrumental. Consciousness refers to an individuals awareness and resulting responsiveness to its surrounding. 

Absence of consciousness and it’s role in crisis 

1. Political- despotic government are unaware and unresponsive to needs of citizen. Which when unmet results in protests, instability and conflict. Eg- beginning of Syrian conflict 

2. Economic- the privileged class are often criticised of not being conscious of their responsibility to do more for the society. Their preference for living in a isolated bubble perpetuates inequality evidenced by Oxfam report 

3. Social- Not being aware of duties and boundaries of ones right often leads to societal clashes. Eg Gun violence in USA 

4. Environmental- Developed countries not taking cognisance of their historical responsibility and contributing financially and technologically is delaying achieving Paris agreement goals. 


Living in an interconnected world and being social animals, humans needs to be more conscious of their surrounding. That’s the first step in insisting remedying action. Doing our duties as global citizen and raising our voice when injustice is committed is the need of the hour. 

+ ethical principles of international conduct

+ Transparency in information sharing - world is one unit

+ Required: more accountability in the way global decisions are made

+Threat to rule based order by ignoring multilateral institutions - can quote Peter Singer's One World wherein how a global ethic rather than a nationalistic approach can provide illuminating answers to important problems.

+ need compassionate view to address problems that affect entire humanity

+ Social: quote George Floyd incident

+ Economic: Quote Migrant Crisis 



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I somehow get really stuck in quotes based questions. Looking forward to learning from@rashiv and@upsc2020.keep posting more of quotation based/ Section-A questions. :)

Try answering this one :). 

Shall be posting more for sure. 

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CSE20said

Our world is in crisis because of the absence of consciousness. 

Our world is in crisis at multiple levels. Rising temperature, nuclear arms, sectarian conflicts, boundary disputes, financial woes, pandemics, declining trustability and the list goes further. If human world is marked by ability of man to be aware of and rationally respond to its surrounding, that is consciousness, humans need to demonstrate more of it. For these crises are reflections of irresponsible, insensitive, and apathetic actions of mankind.

Mindless extraction of natural resources and exploitation of environment all over the world have resulted in global warming, frequent instances of drought, flood, severe cyclones, forest fires, etc. That the world has not been able to yet implement a Paris Climate Accord signed in 2015 shows the lack of concern and seriousness towards the 'tragedy of commons'.

The long  power conflicts in Africa and Middle East and the humanitarian crises therein (famine in Yemen for instance) show the absolute apathy of leaders towards their citizens.

Failure of the global community to reach at consensus over elimination of terrorism, nuclear arms, space war, threats from state funded organized crimes further reflect lack of consciousness to resolve these crises.

In fact responses to COVID 19 or racial discrimination where there are global mechanisms to deal with, show that there is dearth of respect and sense of obligation.

 Philosophers like Rousseau and Locke believed that it was the urge for common good that drove humans towards collective organized life. The highest points in recent human history such as formation of UN, Rio Agenda, agreemnets on SDGs are all outcome of responsible and conscious efforts towards larger human welfare.

The need of the hour is mutual recognition of accountability, empathy, and compassion towards fellow humans and the surrounding ecology. With conscious acts the world can overcome the crises.



That's a very well structured answer. 

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Social values are moreover important than economic values. Discuss the statement in context of inclusive governance 

- Max Weber advocated the importance of social values to maintain the balance and solidarity in the society.

-In hierarchical societies, focus on distributive justice. Concept of development is different in developing countries as they have to focus on inclusive growth and creation of egalitariansocieties which is enhanced through dimensions like gender empowerment, development of vulnerable sections of society.

-social values - bring stability, general guidelines of social conduct

-Programs which include both social values and economic values like NREGA more successful.  

_ Govt realises this dictum - tax benefit on social spendings of trusts

- Private healthcare institutions focusing only on profitability have less social acceptance. Humanitarian approach ethical - eg: RIL Covid Hospital
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@upsc2020 is the max weber wala glee correct?


Yes, as per what I have read. Weber believed that modern societies were obsessed with efficiency (Economic Values)– so much that questions of ethics, affection and tradition are brushed to one side – and that has the consequence of making people miserable and leading to enormous social problems. 

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  1. How to cover current affairs ??for mains in online format or in hard copy??

That would be entirely your prerogative. Whichever mode is more comfortable. If you are able to save all files - online is fine. If you need a pen and a highlighter, go for hard copies

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rashivsaid

Let’s solve the ethics previous year topic wise? I will post daily 3-4 question and in a week will complete all the question what say?

3-4 questions a day will be a little too much. Maximum of 1 question and 1 case study a day is what can be managed via this platform. Better to do little everyday and be consistent with it 

Agreed. I would like to stress more on peer review and brainstorming as exchange of ideas always helps, esp with this paper. 

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CSE20said

Social values are more important than economic values. Discuss in the context of inclusive governance. 
Inclusive governance is guided by the principle of "leaving no one behind" in the pursuit of welfare for all. Values as preferred ideals are integral to social conduct. In the context of inclusive governance participatory approach, equitable outcome for all, integrity and accountability, empathy and compassion towards weaker sections are some key values.
Social values like tolerance, empathy, justice, responsibility, equality etc. enable dignity and peaceful coexistence of all. The fundamental rights in the Indian Constitution like abolition of untouchability and Right to life are based on such social values.
Economic values corresponds to the economic model adopted by a state, like profit and consumerism in capitalist economy or redistribution of resources in a socialist economy. 
Nonetheless any thriving economy requires certain social conditions for smooth functioning such as
1. Values of tolerance and respect for diversity are seen as important to build investor's confidence in an economy 
2. Corruption and red tapism can prevent inflow of capital in an economy 
3. Sustainable development is based on environmental ethics calling for just and responsible usage of nature.
Inclusive governance cannot take place if profit making takes place as the the cost of environmental degradation and loss of livelihood for people dependent on these resources. If redistribution fails tof reduce inequality then it is not inclusive governance. 
The Yellow Vest movement in France or protests in Chile show that economic development without social values like justice, dignity, equality hampers inclusive governance. 
Hence mere economic values cannot result in inclusive governance. Therein lies the importance of social values.


The France and Chile example is very apt and unique. 

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Let’s solve the ethics previous year topic wise? I will post daily 3-4 question and in a week will complete all the question what say?

1/2 questions I think should do to sustain momentum. What say?

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i want to practice for mains .but i want to write regularly and seriously on weekends so can somebody suggest how should proceed

MGP is a good option. Vision - can be used for practice. I am not blown away by their feedbacks. 

You may Utilize these threads additionally for practice and peer review.

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@upsc2020 Then is there a need to spend money on it or free pdfs would suffice, given that i Write them religiously.


Spend money on ?

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@upsc2020  mains test series of vision or forumias (25k-40k rupees)


Forumias I would recommend for the feedback. Doesn't make sense if u join 2. 

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5. All people do not aspire for excellence. Do you agree? What does “excellence‟ mean to you? What are you doing to develop the virtue of excellence in yourself?
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6. Explain with examples how whistle-blowing is both an ethical and unethical act if seen in different perspectives?
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rashivsaid

5. All people do not aspire for excellence. Do you agree? What does “excellence‟ mean to you? What are you doing to develop the virtue of excellence in yourself?

Excellence to me refers to achieving the most optimal level of performance in a given activity. Eg Sachin Tendulkar achieved excellence in his cover drives. 

Achieving excellence requires years of focused hardwork and fortitude among other things. But the aspiration to achieve excellence precedes all other requirements. Not all humans aspire for excellence for following reasons :-

A. Self doubt - it deters an individual from believing in oneself and aiming for excellence. It is for this reason APJ Abdul Kalam focussed on role of parents to instil confidence in their children 

B. Soc-eco constraints- Abhijit Banerjee in his book Poor Economics evidences how poverty trap deters individuals from having higher aspiration and realising potential due to immediate severe hardships 

C. Consumption culture- Era of globalisation has thrown open immense distraction around our lives to consume Eg Social media and Over the top media service.  It Deters individuals from having ability to concentrate for longer and work towards excellence.

I develop the virtue of excellence via 

1. Increasing my self awareness via meditation. This is followed by self regulation to improve on flaws and attain desirable traits like adaptability . 

2. Have correct role models to take inspiration from and motivate myself. Eg ISRO chief K.Sivan 

3. Following my passion, which helps me sustain my efforts and have honest intentions towards it. 

In light of Article 51A which enumerates fundamental duty to strive for excellence, all must get on the path of realising their fullest potential and do service to the nation. 

Kudos. 

+ Aim to achieve excellence in the work that is carried out with good intention for larger good of others EthicalExcellenceprovides success that is sustainable and fulfilling.



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rashivsaid

» show previous quotes

Whistleblowing refers to the act of disclosing secretive information of the institution one works at for it being unethical or illegal. Eg Exposing of Vyapam scam was due to whistleblowers. It’s ethicality differs from a matter of perception :-

1. Edward Snowden blew the whistle on surveillance of CIA on USA citizen. 

A. It was deemed ethical due to upholding public morality and preventing a surveillance State impacting right to privacy 

B. It was also deemed unethical for being an act of treason, for it made public highly classified information which Snowden was duty bound to protect 

2. In 2018, 4 Supreme Court judges gave a press conference on highlighting their concerns over the role of CJI and it’s dispensation of functions specifically being the master of roster 

A. The said act can be said to be ethical for ushering some transparency on actual functioning of Supreme Court and strengthening justice delivery mechanism for exposing some ills in the system 

B. It was also said to be unethical for it went against the principle of “institutions are bigger than the individual”. By making it public, it reduces the credibility of the Judiciary as a clean institution dispensing justice 

From above two examples we see how whistleblowing has differing value judgement based on perception. The need is to ensure following Gandhiji’s teaching. That of following one’s dharma, if an individual believes in his cause and that to be just, he should take up the action of whistleblowing. 


While the answer you've written is good, I suggest that try to include something related to civil services. For example, 

+Truth versus Loyalty: whether a civil servant should remain loyal to the government or he should speak truth for the interest of the society. It is also a classic dilemma in case of whistle-blowing. So from the perspective of govt it would appear unethical, however from the WB's perspective it is ethical. 

Conclusion: ought to be balanced - Whistle-blowing is a brave act of conscience, boundaries are blurred and the resort needs to be taken when alternative avenues are not correcting the situation. 

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rashivsaid

rashivsaid

» show previous quotes

Whistleblowing refers to the act of disclosing secretive information of the institution one works at for it being unethical or illegal. Eg Exposing of Vyapam scam was due to whistleblowers. It’s ethicality differs from a matter of perception :-

1. Edward Snowden blew the whistle on surveillance of CIA on USA citizen. 

A. It was deemed ethical due to upholding public morality and preventing a surveillance State impacting right to privacy 

B. It was also deemed unethical for being an act of treason, for it made public highly classified information which Snowden was duty bound to protect 

2. In 2018, 4 Supreme Court judges gave a press conference on highlighting their concerns over the role of CJI and it’s dispensation of functions specifically being the master of roster 

A. The said act can be said to be ethical for ushering some transparency on actual functioning of Supreme Court and strengthening justice delivery mechanism for exposing some ills in the system 

B. It was also said to be unethical for it went against the principle of “institutions are bigger than the individual”. By making it public, it reduces the credibility of the Judiciary as a clean institution dispensing justice 

From above two examples we see how whistleblowing has differing value judgement based on perception. The need is to ensure following Gandhiji’s teaching. That of following one’s dharma, if an individual believes in his cause and that to be just, he should take up the action of whistleblowing. 


While the answer you've written is good, I suggest that try to include something related to civil services. For example, 

+Truth versus Loyalty: whether a civil servant should remain loyal to the government or he should speak truth for the interest of the society. It is also a classic dilemma in case of whistle-blowing. So from the perspective of govt it would appear unethical, however from the WB's perspective it is ethical. 

Conclusion: ought to be balanced - Whistle-blowing is a brave act of conscience, boundaries are blurred and the resort needs to be taken when alternative avenues are not correcting the situation. 

Did my conclusion come across as unbalanced ? Asking so that I could correct it 

Yes a tad unbalanced, I felt. 

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CSE20said

» show previous quotes

All people do not aspire for excellence beacuse

1. Behavioral factors - lack of self motivation, low self esteem, inferiority complex, mental health issues like short attention etc.

2. Infrastructural factors - financial constraints, absence of educational institutions and formal training, lack of government support, remote geography, etc.

3. Social factors - lack of family support and guidance of experienced people, identity barriers like caste, lack of competitive peers, etc.

From an individual's perspective excellence is relative concept. For a student excellence means coming first in the examination while for it may mean just scoring the passing marks. In the former's opinion the later may not have aspiration for excellence as they have different benchmarks.

To me excellence means achieving the best performance as per my ability. It is a virtue that propels one to achieve the highest standard of efficiency and effectiveness. 

Amartya Sen in capability approach argues that developing capabilities is key to achieving one's desired goals. My focus therefore has been

1. Knowledge of the subject/area where I seek excellence 

2. Acquiring required set of skills through formal training

3. Right attitude and keenness to learn from past mistakes

4. Taking inspiration from success stories

I believe in the words of Swami Vivekananda "Arise, Awake, and stop not till the goal is reached" as I aspire for excellence.

Good usage of Sen and the quotation. Very well structured I think. 

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6. Explain with examples how whistle-blowing is both an ethical and unethical act if seen in different perspectives?

Whistle-blowing refers to the act of bringing unethical or illegal practices being performed in an organisation into public notice.

Like every coin has two sides, so is the case with whistle-blowing. 

Whistle-blowing as an ethical practice - 

  • It works for the larger good of the society. For example Vyapam case led to bringing in forefront corruption in medical admissions in Madhya Pradesh 
  • It helps in keeping a check on unbridled power of the officials of an organization. For instance, insider trading practices have been declared as illegal by SEBI. 
  • On an individual level, it ensures that a person does not suffer from crisis of conscience. 

Whistle-blowing as an unethical practice 

  • Leads of trust deficit in the society as well as organization as was seen after the press conference of SC judges in 2018. 
  • Breach of confidentiality 
  • Can lead to lowering of market sentiment and make shareholders/other stakeholders suffer like in case of Satyam. 
  • If false, it can tarnish the reputation for a long time to come. 

While it is true that whistle-blowing acts have on several occasions brought into picture unethical practices like poor governance, corruption etc into public foray, they have also raised question about the exercise of such acts by individuals. Thus, there is a need to have guidelines which can clearly demarcate the occasions on which such acts would be permissible along with other mechanisms to deal with complaints. 




Good conclusion and usage of important terms like Crisis of conscience, breach of confidentiality. Insider trading example - cab you please elaborate ?

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Can we take up previous year questions next, please?

Sure. 

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7. What does this quotation mean to you ? 

A man is but a product of his thoughts. What he thinks he becomes.” – M.K. Gandhi

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8. What does this quotation mean to you ? 

Where there is righteousness in the heart, there is beauty in the character. When there is beauty in the character, there is harmony in the home. When there is harmony in the home, there is order in the nation. When there is order in the nation, there is peace in the world” – A.P.J. Abdul Kalam (150 words)

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Can we take up previous year questions next, please?

The last two questions posted are CSE qstns. 

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CSE20said

8. What does this quotation mean to you ? 

Where there is righteousness in the heart, there is beauty in the character. When there is beauty in the character, there is harmony in the home. When there is harmony in the home, there is order in the nation. When there is order in the nation, there is peace in the world” – A.P.J. Abdul Kalam (150 words)

It indicates that ethics in private life (family) and ethics in public life (nation) are interconnected. According to it an honest person maintains his honesty at his home as well as in the profession. As per NCRB data most criminals experience troubled family life.

Plato - state is individual writ large. The nature of a nation reflects its citizens. An ethical citizenry chooses ethical leadership. Conduct of inter- state and global politics depends upon values of nations. When all countries commit to mutual peace and tranquility  problems like wars, terrorism, poverty, environmental degradation will automatically disappear. Thus terrorism persists because some people believe in violence, practice it, and subsequently it finds a place in state programmes in the form of state sponsored terrorism.



+ Define Righteousness  - quality of being morally right and justifiable which forms the basis for any society.

+ Concept of Righteousness - Dharma 

The jump from family life to terrorism with Plato in between is a little incoherent. While the main thread looks fine to me, I think it has to be structured better.  

Define Righteousness --->How it starts with private life --->ethics in public & private interlinked -->Nation

Eg: Swami Vivekananda/ Mandela

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8. What does this quotation mean to you ? 

Where there is righteousness in the heart, there is beauty in the character. When there is beauty in the character, there is harmony in the home. When there is harmony in the home, there is order in the nation. When there is order in the nation, there is peace in the world” – A.P.J. Abdul Kalam (150 words)

The above mentioned quote shows an intricate connection between a morally upright individual, and his/her role in establishing a peaceful world order. 


Mere acquisition of knowledge is fatal. It leads to a directionless individual. The process of acquiring knowledge, if augmented by an approach in infusing morally correct education, makes a character whole and complete in itself. This individual in turn creates an ecosystem, which propels a chain reaction of just and humane behaviour. S/he impacts her family's thinking process, which further helps in making a nation which is much more attune in upholding the notions of peace equity and justice. This kind of ecosystem helps in creating an environment which accords highest importance to the virtue of a character, rather than penalising him/her for being an morally upright individual. 


In our contemporary world, where there exists a frantic race to superimpose ideologies on one another, the central theme of this quote, to my mind, can help us in accommodating multiplicity of ideas, and can guide us in living a righteous way of life.

Any examples to substantiate?

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A man is but a product of his thoughts. What he thinks he becomes.” – M.K. Gandhi

The above quote hints towards the interrelation between man's existence and his essence.

The essence of a human is prior to his existence and this essence is moulded by our thought.The law of attraction holds that what we think is what we attract which in turn is an outward manifestation of ourselves

Feminist such as semoine de Beauvoir held that one is not born a women , one becomes a woman,which means that being a woman is merely a state of mind, gender and sex are not the same , one is our existence and other our thought

for someone like Hannah arendt action and thought are aligned, when action and thought part ways thought becomes meaningless and action turns brutal.

therefore what we act is merely an outward practice of our thought,there is no dichotomy between the two.

Gandhiji rightly held that one cannot hope for a rose by planting babool seed. Therefore what we think, we become

Above quote emphasizes upon importance of thoughts and its role in shaping individuals. 

+ Mahatma Gandhi in his book “My Experiments with Truth” has shown how his thought process was influenced by his upbringing, experiences and his strong beliefs.

+ Examples - Bhagat Singh driven by thoughts of egalitarianism and inclusive society vs Hitler believing in white supremacy. 

+ Society increasingly becoming materialistic and self centered (reflected in increasing consumerism) - need societies to inculcate ethical thinking. 

Answer needs examples tosubstantiate the statements made. 

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10. In looking for people to hire, you look for three qualities: integrity, intelligence and energy. And if they do not have the first, the other two will kill you.” – Warren Buffett

What do you understand by this statement in the present-day scenario? Explain.
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11. Rakesh is a responsible district level officer, who enjoys the trust of his higher officials. Knowing his honesty, the government entrusted him with the responsibility of identifying the beneficiaries under a health care scheme meant for senior citizens.

The criteria to be a beneficiary are the following:
(a) 60 years of age or above.
(b) Belonging to a reserved community.
(c) Family income of less than 1 Lakh rupees per annum.
(d) Post-treatment prognosis is likely to be high to make a positive difference to the quality of life of the beneficiary.

One day, an old couple visited Rakesh’s office with their application. They have been the residents of a village in his district since their birth. The old man is diagnosed with a rare condition that causes obstruction in the large intestine. As a consequence, he has severe abdominal pain frequently that prevents him from doing any physical labour. The couple has no children to support them. The expert surgeon whom they contacted is willing to do the surgery without charging any fee. However, the couple will have to bear the cost of incidental charges, such as medicines, hospitalization, etc., to the tune of rupees one lakh. The couple fulfils all the criteria except criterion ‘b’. However, any financial aid would certainly make a significant difference in their quality of life.

How should Rakesh respond to the situation? (250 words)  
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rashivsaid

11. Rakesh is a responsible district level officer, who enjoys the trust of his higher officials. Knowing his honesty, the government entrusted him with the responsibility of identifying the beneficiaries under a health care scheme meant for senior citizens.

The criteria to be a beneficiary are the following:
(a) 60 years of age or above.
(b) Belonging to a reserved community.
(c) Family income of less than 1 Lakh rupees per annum.
(d) Post-treatment prognosis is likely to be high to make a positive difference to the quality of life of the beneficiary.

One day, an old couple visited Rakesh’s office with their application. They have been the residents of a village in his district since their birth. The old man is diagnosed with a rare condition that causes obstruction in the large intestine. As a consequence, he has severe abdominal pain frequently that prevents him from doing any physical labour. The couple has no children to support them. The expert surgeon whom they contacted is willing to do the surgery without charging any fee. However, the couple will have to bear the cost of incidental charges, such as medicines, hospitalization, etc., to the tune of rupees one lakh. The couple fulfils all the criteria except criterion ‘b’. However, any financial aid would certainly make a significant difference in their quality of life.

How should Rakesh respond to the situation? (250 words)  

The above case brings to light the issue faced by public servant in following Weberian bureaucracy of automated bureaucracy based on rules V/S following new public management approach of citizen centric humane approach. 

The stakeholders in the case are 

1. Old man- facing hardships due to health issue 

2. Old women- concerned over her only companion 

3. Doctor and the hospital concerned- decision will impact their monetary compensation 

4. Rakesh- being true to the responsibility entrusted on him of diligent implementation of the scheme 

Rakesh should approach the situation in the following way 

A. Make the old couple feel heard and assure them of help which is possible at the earliest 

B. Speak to the concerned hospital and request to minimise the cost as far as possible by reducing their profit margin over fixed cost 

C. Speak to the concerned doctor and see if the medicine ideally used can be replaced with Jan Aushadhi generic medicine at affordable price

D. Direct a subordinate to cross check the old couple and their criteria fulfilment for enrolling under Ayushman Bharat. If they do, the cost would be taken care of under the scheme 

E. If the criteria isn’t fulfilled, then get the said couple in touch with functioning NGO’s in my district who can either fund the medical care, or start a crowdfunding for garnering fund. 

Merits of the above approach 

1. Making them feel heard and assuring of help is key in new public management approach to dispensing public service 

2. Speaking to hospital and doctor will bring down the cost of treatment via generic medicine and reduced profit margin. Forcing them to do it for free will set a wrong trend and against just monetary compensation principle.

3. Involving civil society allows Rakesh to do his duty empathetically while being honest to the rules of the scheme. Will also kickstart stronger civil society link to residents of the village/district  

4. Exploring Ayushman Bharat eligibility will help the couple of not only being aware of the scheme, but will yield long term benefit to them for any healthcare needs of theirs 

As a civil servant need is to display leadership skill of quick decision making and setting the right precedent for the office and district. Hence adopting the golden mean approach, of helping the old couple without flouting the norms of the scheme or providing personal contribution will set the most ethical precedent under given circumstances. 

Your structure for case study is really nice. 

+ Integrated Programme for Older Persons under Ministry of Social Justice.

+ Can encourage to make it completely a pro bono surgery as it is a rare condition. District Administration can reward/give commendation letter. 

+ Encourage civil society to crowd source funds.

+ This case cannot be taken in isolation as there would be many others in need. Taking this case as a base, he can propose to consider insertion of a sub category for economically weaker section of the society as well.

My observation:

- Answer looks Pub-Adish instead of Ethics. New public management approach - makes it technical. That's my opinion, I may be wrong. 


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12. Emotional Intelligence is the ability to make your emotions work for you instead of against you”. Do you agree with this view? Discuss. 
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13. You are heading the rescue operations in an area affected by severe natural calamity. Thousands of people are rendered homeless and deprived of food, drinking water and other basic amenities. Rescue work has been disrupted by heavy rainfall and damage to supply routes. The local people are seething with anger against the delayed limited rescue operations. When your team reaches the affected area, the people there heckle and even assault some of the team members . One of your team members is even severely injured. Faced with this crisis, some team members plead with you to call off the operations fearing threats to their life.
In such trying circumstances, what will be your response? Examine the qualities of a public servant which will be required to manage the situation.
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I am starting GS4 preparation today. can anyone suggest sources to read from?

Any suggestions on how to go about GS4 preparation would be really welcomed!

In my opinion,

- Previous year’s papers - to understand the scope of the syllabus and type of questions asked.

-  Study material of any institute (you do not have to memorize it, but internalize the gist and some basic definitions).

- Harvard Prof. Michael Sandel course on Justice. 

DoPT manual on ethics for civil servants with Indian perspective. 

- While reading newspaper, try to focus on actions of various people involved. Use them as examples.  

Ethics is about articulation. It can be improved with the help of regular writing practice.

- Read some topper's answers to get an idea of how answers are written. 


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CSE20said

13. You are heading the rescue operations in an area affected by severe natural calamity. Thousands of people are rendered homeless and deprived of food, drinking water and other basic amenities. Rescue work has been disrupted by heavy rainfall and damage to supply routes. The local people are seething with anger against the delayed limited rescue operations. When your team reaches the affected area, the people there heckle and even assault some of the team members . One of your team members is even severely injured. Faced with this crisis, some team members plead with you to call off the operations fearing threats to their life.
In such trying circumstances, what will be your response? Examine the qualities of a public servant which will be required to manage the situation.

Confronted with people angry over bad service delivery my response will be
A. Solicit cooperation
1. Communicating with affected residents about reasons for delay such as damage to supply route and steps taken for their rescue time to time through community radio, loud speakers, etc..
2. Request cooperation from residents for quicker rescue operations
B. Boost morale of team members
1. Arrange necessary medical intervention for injured members.
2. Remind them of their call of duty and an opportunity to display their grit and skills
C. Speak to senior officers and relevant departments if air lifting of stranded people can be arranged in given situation.
All in all my entire focus will be successful completion of the mission.
Qualities of a public servant
1. Dedication to the task at hand. No amount of adversity should come on the way of evacuation of victims of the calamity.
2. Compassionately deal with angry people as well as rescue team members
3. Emotional intelligence in terms of channelising motivation, team spirit among members
4. Objective, clear, empathetic decision making keeping in mind the evolving situations
5. Lead by example : work with team members on field to motivate them instead of merely passing directions.

Some inputs for qualities:

1. Spirit of Service which promotes the idea that individuals can make a difference and that at any moment you can influence an outcome. 

2. Empathy to understand the plight of affected people

3. Persuasive decision making 

4. Emotional intelligence to also develop a quick rapport with affected population -establish peace and set things in order.


I am divided about the thought of quoting real life examples of such situation in case studies. What's your opinion?

@rashiv @TheNotorious 

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14. At the international level, bilateral relations between most nations are governed on the policy of promoting one’s own national interest without any regard for the interest of other nations. This lead to conflicts and tension between the nations. How can ethical consideration help resolve such tensions? Discuss with specific examples.
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yummysaid

8. What does this quotation mean to you ? 

Where there is righteousness in the heart, there is beauty in the character. When there is beauty in the character, there is harmony in the home. When there is harmony in the home, there is order in the nation. When there is order in the nation, there is peace in the world” – A.P.J. Abdul Kalam (150 words)

pls give your valuable feedback. 

I think it is important to define righteousness in this question. Flow of examples is good. 

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yummysaid

7. What does this quotation mean to you ? 

A man is but a product of his thoughts. What he thinks he becomes.” – M.K. Gandhi


Value addition

+ Mahatma Gandhi in his book “My Experiments with Truth” has shown how his thought process was influenced by his upbringing, experiences and his strong beliefs.

+ Can add positive thoughts like empathy, compassion / -ve thoughts like greed, hatred. 

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The first step in the evolution of ethic is a sense of solidarity with other human beings.

With reference to ethics in journalism, comment on the above statement. 
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yummysaid


Since the question asks about values which are universal, I think one should quote various national and international reports to substantiate on the "overlapping" universal values. 

1. International Code of Conduct for Public Officials by UN

2. Nolan Committee

3. ARC 


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yummysaid

Above question 1. Please give your valuable insights. Thanks.

+ Strength: According to realism, a state’s primary interest is self-preservation. Therefore, the state must seek power and must always protect itself. 


Complying with Nehruvian view which maintains that national interest can only be defined in context of universal values like peace, tolerance and fraternity.

Also as a value addition, one can mention:

United Nations Charter ‘is the legal and moral foundation of international relations’. It provides for both end and means values that must be taken into account by all member nations.

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What is the difference between ‘nepotism’ and ‘favouritism’? 

In both cases, you are showing preferential treatment to a person or a group of people. In the case of ‘favouritism’, you could be showing your support to someone who may or may not be related to you. When we were in school, we often felt that the teacher was showing favouritism towards a certain student — in other words, she gave him special treatment; treated him differently from the way she treated others. Parents are often accused of showing favouritism when it comes to their sons. We are all guilty of showing favouritism. The word, ‘nepotism’, on the other hand, comes from the Latin ‘nepos’ meaning ‘nephew’, and it is mostly used in the context of business and politics. When a politician uses his power in an unfair manner to promote his children or people who are related to him, he is accused of nepotism; it is favouritism based on kinship.

The Chief Minister was accused of nepotism when he appointed his daughter as Deputy Chief Minister.
My maths teacher never showed any favouritism towards anyone.

Source: The Hindu

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WEF meet in Switzerland came with the announcement of setting up a “Centre for Internet of Ethical Things” by Karnataka. Setting up of the centre would be in partnership with the World Economic Forum (WEF) to ensure a level-playing field for global investors and industrialists. 

Why is ethics such a big criteria for global business? 

When a global firm chooses to do business with a country, the trust factor contributes heavily to their decision making. To ascertain trust in investors and dealers, accountability and transparency are key elements. By setting up this ‘Centre for Internet of Ethical Things’, global businesses may find more confidence as they have an ethical body to keep a check on the misuse of technology

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Can anyone tell me how is Orient Ias Atul Girg ethics program & test series?I am not confident in ethics.Is it better than Lukmaan?or should I go for lukmaan content enrichment batch?

Orient - It's decent. I had not joined but referred to some test papers. 

Lukman - not too sure. Wasn't really good when I was at ORN. Dunno if it had bettered.

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What is ethic

I am assuming your question is What is Ethics? 

Ethics is defined as the study of what we understand to be good and right behaviour and how people make those judgments. When one acts in ways that are consistent with our moral values, we’ll characterize that as acting ethically. 

Defining what is ethical is not an individual exercise. However, if it is, then one could have argued that what Hitler did was ethical since his actions conformed to his definition of right, fair and good. The ethics of our decisions and actions is defined by society and not individually. 

So it can be said that “ethics is the discipline that examines one’s moral standards or the moral standards of the society. It asks how these moral standards apply to our lives and whether these standards are reasonable or unreasonable- that is whether good reasons or poor ones support them.

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Neyawnsaid

» show previous quotes

Let me put you through some thinking process.


First, do not begin an answer with yes I agree or no I don’t agree. Arrive at the conclusion rather than begin from it.


Secondly, think and tell me why all humans aspire for happiness ?



What is the harm in starting an answer with “Yes, I agree to it” or “no, I don’t agree with it”? 

I mean by opening an answer with such statement/s, one is able to directly answer the question plus one can conclude the answer by stating the reason why s/he is for or against the statement.

1. The nature of the questions is entirely different. Happiness is an abstract concept. The example you have quoted is diabolical, illegal and immoral - for which one has to vehemently argue right from the first statement that it is wrong. 

2. As far as this question is concerned, I would rather answer it with the first part question - all human beings aspire for Happiness. For such abstract questions, I feel the approach has to be more of "building up a conversation". 

For example,

According to Aristotle, nature works toward a telos, or end goal. Our function in life is to realize our full potential as rational beings. For instance, one might go to the gym with the telos of becoming fitter. When Aristotle identifies happiness as the highest goal, he is claiming that happiness is the ultimate telos of any action. 

Suppose, a kid asks:

Q: why do you go on a vacation?

A: to spend uninterrupted quality time with my family

q: why do you want to spend quality time?

A: because it makes me happy

Q: why do you want to be happy?

A: Because, I just want to be.  

Every activity thus has a telos, which is an answer to the question, Why are you doing this? 

Now, what happiness means to me? Since it is a GS4 paper, one can suitably choose what makes them happy. :P

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yummysaid

.

It's a good answer. Some more points:

- Encouraging officers to take decisions by rewarding them for success.

- Encouraging participation of people in governance through trust building measures.

- judiciary can restrict itself in crossing the boundaries by coming out with norms for judicial activism.

Conclusion is a lil abrupt. You can write that - thus, there is need to resolve the dichotomy between the need for transparency and accountability and protecting honest civil servants from undue harassment and the above measures can help in resolving the same.


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yummysaid

wisdom finds truth essay 21 june.pdf

please review my essay on Wisdom finds truth. Topic Mains 2019 

Unable to open the document. 

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Agogsaid

If 1s close peer in finance dpt of the same comp misappropriates funds of a dormant account 4 urgent medical needs of daughter after exhausting all options and then discloses it 2 him saying started repaying it,wht shuld b 1 future course of action?? @upsc2020 @rashiv @TheNotorious 

1. No public fund can be utilised for any personal reasons. 

2. One can empathize with the situation but you have to urge him for full disclosure. 

Also, this situation is slightly unlikely in a government setup as everyone's covered under Health Schemes. So encourage and make him aware of the various schemes. 

Is this a question from some test series ?


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yummysaid

It is often said that‘politics’ and ‘ethics’ do not go together.What isyour opinionin this regard?Justifyyour answer with illustrations. Mains 2013

Young people withethical conduct are not willing to come forward to join active politics.Suggest steps to motivate them to come forward. Mains 2017

@upsc2020 and others, how you would have written ans on politics and ethics ? some examples also.

Rousseau proclaimed that the person who would separate politics from ethics will fail to understand both.The main debate about this issue pertains to the choice of meansthat should betaken to pursue the ends. In this regard, it should be noted that politics, without ethics, is purposeless. 

Politics, without an ethical base, will only become a means to perpetuate oppression and exploitation.Though it is also true that in the era of coalition politics, criminalisation of politics and diverse demands and aspirations of people, it has become difficult for a politician to be in power on ethical grounds. But, losing ethical grounds for the sake of power leads to the destruction of the basic objective of coming to power. It is only when politics is guided through an ethical framework that the good of the society is produced. 

Gandhiji also acknowledged this deep connection between politics and ethics. (There is some quotation also he said). It is ethics which differentiates one political leader from another. For example, Hitler's politics devoid of ethics is an example of inhuman conduct.

Thus, ethics and politics are intertwined at the foundation as "Politics is nothing but ethics in public".

@rashiv

@Agog

4.2k views

@rashiv 

yummysaid

It is often said that‘politics’ and ‘ethics’ do not go together.What isyour opinionin this regard?Justifyyour answer with illustrations. Mains 2013

Young people withethical conduct are not willing to come forward to join active politics.Suggest steps to motivate them to come forward. Mains 2017

@upsc2020 and others, how you would have written ans on politics and ethics ? some examples also.

Rousseau proclaimed that the person who would separate politics from ethics will fail to understand both.The main debate about this issue pertains to the choice of meansthat should betaken to pursue the ends. In this regard, it should be noted that politics, without ethics, is purposeless. 

Politics, without an ethical base, will only become a means to perpetuate oppression and exploitation.Though it is also true that in the era of coalition politics, criminalisation of politics and diverse demands and aspirations of people, it has become difficult for a politician to be in power on ethical grounds. But, losing ethical grounds for the sake of power leads to the destruction of the basic objective of coming to power. It is only when politics is guided through an ethical framework that the good of the society is produced. 

Gandhiji also acknowledged this deep connection between politics and ethics. (There is some quotation also he said). It is ethics which differentiates one political leader from another. For example, Hitler's politics devoid of ethics is an example of inhuman conduct.

Thus, ethics and politics are intertwined at the foundation as "Politics is nothing but ethics in public".

Please review

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rashivsaid

yummysaid

It is often said that‘politics’ and ‘ethics’ do not go together.What isyour opinionin this regard?Justifyyour answer with illustrations. Mains 2013

Young people withethical conduct are not willing to come forward to join active politics.Suggest steps to motivate them to come forward. Mains 2017

@upsc2020 and others, how you would have written ans on politics and ethics ? some examples also.

Machiavelli through his writing in Prince began the discourse of amoralisation of politics. He believed that politics and ethics are not intertwined. Politics has its own ethics and morality which must be used by the ruler to protect the State and promote citizen welfare. Eg Russia’s annexation of Crimea on grounds of national security. 

The above trend has given rise to power centric politics where politics has become a means to gain power. It has drifted away from its main goal of serving the needs of people, the fundamental principle of Representative democracy. 

Gandhiji recognised the perils of complete separation of ethics and politics, and hence was a proponent of 

1. Gram sabha- decentralised form of government where community worked for welfare than politics.

2. Role of dharma in politics- Gandhiji believed that all those who engage in politics must stay on the path of dharma, I.e serving needs of antyodaya. 

India has shown the path where politics and ethics are combined. In local politics , 6th schedule of the constitution ensures tribals are empowered via decision making powers. In national politics, constitutional morality dictates the political discourse. Eg DPSP serves as guiding light for policy formulation. Lastly in international politics, India has always supported world peace and inclusive development. 

Good one. Really like the conclusion. 

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rashivsaid

yummysaid

It is often said that‘politics’ and ‘ethics’ do not go together.What isyour opinionin this regard?Justifyyour answer with illustrations. Mains 2013

Young people withethical conduct are not willing to come forward to join active politics.Suggest steps to motivate them to come forward. Mains 2017

@upsc2020 and others, how you would have written ans on politics and ethics ? some examples also.

Rousseau proclaimed that the person who would separate politics from ethics will fail to understand both.The main debate about this issue pertains to the choice of meansthat should betaken to pursue the ends. In this regard, it should be noted that politics, without ethics, is purposeless. 

Politics, without an ethical base, will only become a means to perpetuate oppression and exploitation.Though it is also true that in the era of coalition politics, criminalisation of politics and diverse demands and aspirations of people, it has become difficult for a politician to be in power on ethical grounds. But, losing ethical grounds for the sake of power leads to the destruction of the basic objective of coming to power. It is only when politics is guided through an ethical framework that the good of the society is produced. 

Gandhiji also acknowledged this deep connection between politics and ethics. (There is some quotation also he said). It is ethics which differentiates one political leader from another. For example, Hitler's politics devoid of ethics is an example of inhuman conduct.

Thus, ethics and politics are intertwined at the foundation as "Politics is nothing but ethics in public".

@rashiv

@Agog

Good answer with sound theoretical content. One suggestion, since it’s given justify via illustration, you could have added one distinct contemporary example. I know you’ve mentioned coalition politics + criminalisation, but they might just get missed by the examiner while speed reading it. 

Thank you. Examples even I felt I missed out.

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Q. Young people with ethical conduct are not willing to come forward to join active politics. Suggest steps to motivate them to come forward. (150 words, 10 marks)
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Q.  The crisis of ethical values in modern times is traced to a narrow perception of the good life. 
Discuss.
150-10
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rashivsaid

Q. Young people with ethical conduct are not willing to come forward to join active politics. Suggest steps to motivate them to come forward. (150 words, 10 marks)

Pointers 

1. Why youth not joining- Commercialisation of politics. Eg Huge capital required for ticket + campaigning 

 - Criminalisation of politics- Deters youth

 - Dynastic politics- Makes it harder for youth to rely on meritocracy for recognition 

 - power politics- young people interested in politics for welfare than politics for power. Hence many join NGO, or engage in philanthropy via corporate jobs 

 - Age factor in politics- most politicians are far beyond being ‘youth’, it underscores the fact that to make a substantial name in politics and change in society requires years of experience 

- Monetary compensation- the above factor is further aggravated by the fact that politics is not monetarily rewarding. Hence not a prime option for youth wishing to sustain a family and support his/her parents financially 

 - Unethical practises- predominant generalisation of politics is “Sam dam dand bhed” as said by Kautilya, becomes untenable for ethically sound youth.


How to motivate - cadre based political parties need to adopted. It automatically rewards meritocracy 

 - ECI can recommend prominent youth wing unit for national political parties

 - Promote clean student politics in higher education to attract youth 

 - ensuring local panchayat elections are fought by locals/local youth->training ground for national politic

 - institutional strengthening to eradicate ills in politics. Eg ECI reforms, judicial fast track court

 - aware citizenry to reward merit based/development politics than identity based politics 

 - popularise role models at all levels. 



 

Points are very relevant. 

Value addition: 

- requires a comprehensive strategy covering all aspects (cognitive and behavioral) of persuasion and attitude change must be targeted simultaneously.

- Role modeling: how young leaders in past have changed course of history Nehru etc. 

- Youth Parliament: CPA (Commonwealth Parliamentary Association) annually organizes the Commonwealth Youth Parliament in the regions of the commonwealth. Joining such events helps to motivate + Effective implementation of National Youth Parliament Scheme.


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Q. Young people with ethical conduct are not willing to come forward to join active politics. Suggest steps to motivate them to come forward. (150 words, 10 marks)

reasons for youth not joining politics-

  1. a huge sum of initial capital required for campaigning.
  2. established political parties usually sell their tickets to the highest bidder or give them old party loyalist.
  3. standing as independent weaken the chances of a win.
  4. politics is generally associated with unethical means, thus repelled by youth.
  5. better work opportunities and satisfaction in the voluntary sector.

step to motivate them-

  1. state funding of elections.
  2. spreading voter awareness about the candidate centric politics rather than politics centric.
  3. role modelling- by people like chhavi rajawat who gave up their high paying job to work as panchayat sarpanch
  4. social influence- by showing them the scale of opportunities available to political leaders to uplift people of their constituencies.

Social Influence and Emotional Intelligence is a very relevant point. Thanks. 

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 * A big solution to our all problems is politics but it itself has become a problem.
* There is this apprehension or perception that this political system inhibits young talented people from getting into the politics.
* There is no stipend mechanism for the youth joining the politics to encourage them. This is the reason of corruption. The Young people after working for initially 3-4 years have no idea about the to leadership and decisions taken, he has no idea how to go up in the party heirarchy. Because there is no internal politics and also because of dynasty politics. In the previous LS election, there was not a single person lesser than 30 years of age elected to LS. Here talent is not supported. There is a supply of talent but no demand.
* There is no clarity about funding with the people joining politics and forming a party.
* These politicians, 2nd grade people are electing 2nd grade people which will certainly lead to 3rd grade people.

Solution 
Encourage MPs and MLAs to collaborate with young professionals. This will lead to 
* change in governance
* Change in perception about politics
* They will come to know about how the politics work.
Young people should form a group beyond religious lines.

Internship in the parliament

What other countries are doing :-
* In Uganda, five seats are reserved for youth representatives in the parliament.
* ‘National Youth Parliament’ in Srilanka influences National youth policies.
* Youth enrollment campaign in Australia educates young voters with fun activities.

Fun Fact:Recently, I proposed this idea in my family that I should also contest elections in my Panchayat. Ghar me Haay-Tauba hone lagi, ki ye ladka kya karne wala hai. 😃

Really like how you've given examples from other countries. Would be a great value addition.

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Q.  The crisis of ethical values in modern times is traced to a narrow perception of the good life. 
Discuss.
150-10

narrow perception of a good life- Free of sufferings, plenty of comforts and powerful position in society.

Crisis of ethical values due to this narrow perception-

  1. rise of materialism- as comfort in narrow perception is directly linked to material wealth.
  2. wealth given preference over morality of an individual- social status determined by wealth rather than character of an individual.
  3. craving for social acceptance- people-pleasing rather than standing up for what is right. 
  4. education focussed on making one materially successful rather than ethical development of students

Rather a broad perception of good life should be adopted. that is the ethical development of an individual, intellectual content people, equality of status in society.

Way forward- introducing life skills course in schools.

+ Man has focused on hedonistic gains and the problems that we face today environmental degradation, climate change etc all can be attributed to our lack of social responsibility. 

+ Most of the moral philosophers (Socrates, Plato) have equated good life with being virtuous but today youth is ready to compromise with their virtues for short term material gains. In fact, growing competition and scarcity of resources is not letting youth to get out of what Maslow called lower order needs and aim at higher needs of self-realization. 

+ Gandhi's concept of Sarvodaya


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is there any option on forum where we can save or bookmark like earlier quest the important comments that we may want to refer again without searching?

@Neyawn @root  Is there any such feature?

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@AlexanderSupertramp @upsc2020  yes by clicking on the top left corner besides Forum IAS