Mission Mains 2021: GS 1 - ForumIAS

Mission Mains 2021: GS 1

How would you have answered this question?

1. What makes the Indian society unique in sustaining its culture? Discuss.

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Agogsaid

@upsc2020 Much needed thread,Plz include geo and histry 2 even static.Ths ques i think Diversity/Tolerance and flexibilty=continuity.


Sure.

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Q. Women's leadership and representation in the technology sector remains low. What according to you are the reasons? Explain. 
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@upsc2020 Took a lot more time than what is required : 14 min, Please review it.


The introduction is good. 

The points you've covered are relevant, however, I feel you've consumed a lot of word limit explaining one point. As a result of which, you are not having many points. 

Other points can be:

1. Accommodative nature and inclusive character - different races have assimilated 

2. Social structures enforced to ensure continuity - Resonancewith the Indian society's politico-economic ethos

3. Heritage continued through literature, paintings, knowledge passed on through Vedas (Shruti/Smriti), epics, folklore, regional literature, music etc. 

Just a suggestion, you can avoid this mindmap style for answer writing. Consumes too much space and reduces clarity. 

Hope this helps. 

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Your answer is good. Some value addition:

In terms of diversity, India has Linguistic, Religious, Racial, Ethnic Diversity. 

Diversity also exists in forms of traditions, festivals, Handicrafts, Food etc. By cultural pockets, the question essentially wants us to highlight how one single place reflects culture of various regions. 

1. Kerala - Religious diversity Hindus, Christians, Muslims etc. 

2. Bangalore, Hyderabad - Due to IT companies, a lot of settlers from other states. 

3. Mumbai - Bollywood is a huge employment generator and aspiring artists from all over the country have formed their own pockets.

4. Delhi - it's a city of migrants- Mini India. CR park for example - only Bongs. They have settled and formed their own pockets. 

Eg: Momos - there's nothing Mughal about it. The migration introdcued this diversity in food to Delhi. 

Celebration of Chatt in Delhi which is a Bihari Festival

5. Guwahati/Kolkata - Marwari community migrated long back for business prospects and have settled there. (You've mentioned this with colonialism, mentioning it with a city will add more credence, as the question wants us to quote examples)

6. Government services, postings, transfers - families keep shifting taking their own culture everywhere and adopting the new. 

7. Students migrating for education and then job prospects and subsequently rise in Inter caste, inter region, inter religion marriages. 


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Agogsaid

Whch countries/regions r amongst the largest producers of pharmaceuticals and why?Why s India unable 2 do the same?

World’s Largest Pharmaceutical Exporters

1. Germany: $84.7 billion

2. Switzerland: $71.7 billion

3. United States: $49.7 billion

4. Belgium: $45.7 billion

5. Ireland: $40 billion

India is at 11th position.

Source: https://www.dennybros.com/biggest-pharmaceutical-markets-in-the-world-by-country

__

India is on a positive trajectory. India accounts for 60 percent of global vaccine production. Estimates suggest that one in every three pills consumed in the United States is produced by an Indian generics manufacturer. 

Challenges impacting the industry are:

1. Dependence on intermediary substances and  active Pharmaceutical Ingredients on China - any policy change, price escalations etc have negative impact on Indian Pharmaceutical industry. Close to 85% APIs sourced from China.

2. Lack of SEZs, favorable tax incentives, capital subsidies, innovation, regulations on clinical trials have prevented India from growing her own API industry. Number of students involved in innovation and R&D for pharma is very low in India compared to USA.

3. Indian drugs face high scrutiny by USFDA - difficult to maintain quality complaince while supplying to international markets. 

Government constituted the Katoch committee to make recommendations on reducing the dependence of Indian industry on imported APIs. Mandaviya committee was also formed for the same in 2018. Subsequently, the government plans to establish three bulk drug parks at Punjab, Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh through PPP.

Indian government had also begun “Pharma Vision 2020” with the goal of systematising processes, so that India could become the world leader in end-to-end production of pharmaceutical products.


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Q. "Political boundaries and regional boundaries need to be co-terminus.” Do you agree?
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India Missing Females:Among the 142 million women “missing" globally, over 46 million are in India. According to the United Nations sexual and reproductive health agency (UNFPA), the “missing females" are women cumulatively missing from the population due to postnatal and prenatal sex selection.

The State of World Population 2020 report of UNFPA said India has the highest rate of excess female deaths (13.5 per 1,000 female births), suggesting that an estimated one in nine deaths of females below five may be attributed to postnatal sex selection.
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@AlexanderSupertramp yes.. 2008 I think.


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Q. Discuss whether formation of new states in recent times is beneficial or not for the economy of India. (Answer in 250 words) 15 
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hi. i be want of maximum marsk in all gs papers. i want to be like all the great people here. 

We too are trying. Join the bandwagon. 

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Your handwriting is so pleasing, soothing to the eyes that I honestly first just admired that. 

Arguments For : Better governance in terms of mobilization of resources, govt interaction, Higher economic growth, improvement in the social parameters like per capita income, literacy rate.

+ Studies have shown that there is marked increase in economic activity immediately across the border in the new states. School enrolment also increases, suggesting greater investment in human capital. 

+ Public Affairs Index 2018 reveals that all the four states divided fare better than their mother states.

In arguments against , you can quote examples 

Bihar Jharkhand - you have a new state but now JH doesn't know how to deal with the natural resources. 

There is a need to balance two factors when thinking about the viability of smaller states: economies of scale and social heterogeneity. When the diversity effect becomes greater than the scale effect, there is an economic case for a smaller state.

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Hi, is there any common books or reports that aspirants are referring while studying for GS Mains 1 2 3? Can you please guide me to it?

No common book that I referred to. I prepared my own notes for some handy data like indices etc. 


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“Juvenile delinquency is an outcome of the upheaval that has affected the traditional ways of life in the congenial socio-cultural milieu” Analyse (150 words) (10 marks)

Pointers: -

With the evolution of change in structure of families, life has become freer for individuals but more unstable for families. It is a better and freer life for adults but worse for children. From big, interconnected, and extended families, which helped protect the vulnerable to smaller, detached nuclear families has led to a familial system that has led to a degeneration of values and responsibility of family members towards each other. 

In families and traditional social structures, children through socialization acquired and absorbed the accumulated knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and values of their culture; and learnt the social and interpersonal skills they needed to function effectively in society. Through this process of socialization, children learnt to be responsible and peaceful individuals. Growing up under the joint care of several adults made them feel responsible for all the extended members of the family, besides their own parents. 

With the diminished role of family as an agent of socialization, juvenile delinquency is on the increase. Children are under great stress to be able to meet the ever-increasing challenges of fiercely competitive world of education and employment. They are pushed to drugs and subsequently crimes.

Family factors and parental personal habits like smoking, alcohol intake and substance abuse, involvement in crime, family disharmony, single, separated parents tend to expose children to crime-promoting influences like alcoholism etc. 

In rural setups, usually the male members migrate to cities for job prospects. Lack of attention from both parents, company etc. push kids to crimes. Children are also compelled to work as bonded laborers. They are trapped to grow in a hostage like condition for years. They are insinuated to resort to crimes to obtain freedom from such conditions.

Apart from the above, with less family members to monitor and teach kids the right things, they have unhindered access to all trash on Internet etc. 

The solution cannot be moving back towards a joint family system as the nature of jobs today prevent such a setup. It is theresponsibility of the parents to ensure that their kids are exposed to warm family relationships as it has historically proven to reduce the risk of delinquency in a variety of cultures.



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@Patootie yes surely. :)


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@rashiv Would you want to suggest topics for making brief pointers? 

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rashivsaid

@rashiv Would you want to suggest topics for making brief pointers? 

I think we can start with something easy like cyclone. Prepare notes for GS 1(geography) and also GS 3 (DM).

As a second option we could do->impact of lockdown on women (Society)

Taking up -Impact of Lockdown on Women

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GS 1: Effects of Lockdown on Women

1.

EconomyWomen’s economic resources are being hit hardest. Economic crises hit women harder. Why?

  • Women tend to earn less.
  • Women have fewer savings.
  • Women are disproportionately more in the informal economy.
  • Women have less access to social protections.
  • Women make up the majority of single-parent household

Oxfam India estimates the economic loss from women losing their jobs during the pandemic at about $216 billion, knocking off 8% from the country’s gross domestic product. World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Index 2020 ranks India 112th of 153 countries in offering equal opportunities to women and men, and women often don’t have the same access to health care and education as their male counterparts.

2. Psychological Impact: Emotional impact of the pandemic is disproportionately falling on women’s shoulders in most countries. Increases in unpaid care and domestic work, job and income loss, and the effects of the lockdown on gender-based violence are among the factors that may be contributing to higher rates of stress and anxiety among women.

3. Increased the unpaid care and domestic workload, and women are bearing the heaviest burden. Factors such as double shifts for working women, the absence of assistance of house-help, and the increased need for cooking, cleaning, caring and hygiene is further increasing and tipping our skewed balance of domestic work today.

4. Public transit was interrupted across regions, limiting many women’s mobility as they are less likely than men to own a vehicle. 

5. Civil society organizations (CSOs) who provide services to women victims of violence have seen increases in the number of victims reaching out for help. More than 40 per cent of those CSOs saw increases in cases of violence perpetrated by family members. National Commission for Women has recorded a two-fold increase in gender-based violence across the country, with the body receiving 257 calls in the final week of March as opposed to 116 calls in the first week.

6. There are 11.8 million women with disabilities in India who experience considerable difficulties in the everyday lives. With high poverty levels, poor health conditions, lower incomes, lower education and a patriarchal system they face further dangers in COVID-19. Information to the deaf and those with intellectual disabilities was not available. Personal assistants and health care were not available. It was also seen that the policy of social distancing was excluding them as they were dependent on personal assistants.

7. Education: girls’ education was disadvantaged — as only 29% of Internet users in India are female, and there’s  tendency for families with limited means to give preference to boys for schooling.

8. Women were at higher risk of contracting the virus because they are overrepresented in the health-care sector.

9. Provision of family planning and other sexual health commodities including menstrual health items were impacted as supply chains were under strains from the pandemic. Unplanned pregnancies due to lack of abortion facilities.

10. Small and growing businesses (SGBs) have been hit during the pandemic esp. women entrepreneurs. Gender-lens investing was becoming a part of mainstream conversations but that took a setback.

11. A positive effect of the pandemic, could be that employers start offering more flexible and work-at-home options to their employees. This would help educated women enter and stay in the labour force and not be forced to drop out after child-birth, though the long-term implications for career progression will be unclear in this option.

Since public health emergencies are not gender-neutral, it’s time to devise a gender-balanced response to fight them. Post Covid-19 situation may bring more and more behavioural and mental changes among women with huge post-traumatic stress. Policy decisions need to articulate gendered concerns during public health emergencies because gender-sensitive pandemic planning may substantially mitigate these concerns.

 

@rashiv

5.4k views

rashivsaid

GS 1: Effects of Lockdown on Women

1.

EconomyWomen’s economic resources are being hit hardest. Economic crises hit women harder. Why?

  • Women tend to earn less.
  • Women have fewer savings.
  • Women are disproportionately more in the informal economy.
  • Women have less access to social protections.
  • Women make up the majority of single-parent household

Oxfam India estimates the economic loss from women losing their jobs during the pandemic at about $216 billion, knocking off 8% from the country’s gross domestic product. World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Index 2020 ranks India 112th of 153 countries in offering equal opportunities to women and men, and women often don’t have the same access to health care and education as their male counterparts.

2. Psychological Impact: Emotional impact of the pandemic is disproportionately falling on women’s shoulders in most countries. Increases in unpaid care and domestic work, job and income loss, and the effects of the lockdown on gender-based violence are among the factors that may be contributing to higher rates of stress and anxiety among women.

3. Increased the unpaid care and domestic workload, and women are bearing the heaviest burden. Factors such as double shifts for working women, the absence of assistance of house-help, and the increased need for cooking, cleaning, caring and hygiene is further increasing and tipping our skewed balance of domestic work today.

4. Public transit was interrupted across regions, limiting many women’s mobility as they are less likely than men to own a vehicle. 

5. Civil society organizations (CSOs) who provide services to women victims of violence have seen increases in the number of victims reaching out for help. More than 40 per cent of those CSOs saw increases in cases of violence perpetrated by family members. National Commission for Women has recorded a two-fold increase in gender-based violence across the country, with the body receiving 257 calls in the final week of March as opposed to 116 calls in the first week.

6. There are 11.8 million women with disabilities in India who experience considerable difficulties in the everyday lives. With high poverty levels, poor health conditions, lower incomes, lower education and a patriarchal system they face further dangers in COVID-19. Information to the deaf and those with intellectual disabilities was not available. Personal assistants and health care were not available. It was also seen that the policy of social distancing was excluding them as they were dependent on personal assistants.

7. Education: girls’ education was disadvantaged — as only 29% of Internet users in India are female, and there’s  tendency for families with limited means to give preference to boys for schooling.

8. Women were at higher risk of contracting the virus because they are overrepresented in the health-care sector.

9. Provision of family planning and other sexual health commodities including menstrual health items were impacted as supply chains were under strains from the pandemic. Unplanned pregnancies due to lack of abortion facilities.

10. Small and growing businesses (SGBs) have been hit during the pandemic esp. women entrepreneurs. Gender-lens investing was becoming a part of mainstream conversations but that took a setback.

11. A positive effect of the pandemic, could be that employers start offering more flexible and work-at-home options to their employees. This would help educated women enter and stay in the labour force and not be forced to drop out after child-birth, though the long-term implications for career progression will be unclear in this option.

Since public health emergencies are not gender-neutral, it’s time to devise a gender-balanced response to fight them. Post Covid-19 situation may bring more and more behavioural and mental changes among women with huge post-traumatic stress. Policy decisions need to articulate gendered concerns during public health emergencies because gender-sensitive pandemic planning may substantially mitigate these concerns.

 

@rashiv

My notes had a lot of similarity in points (except the first part where you noted the vulnerability of women). Below mentioned are the points from my notes which would be in addition to your notes 

    Data 

    1. 20% increase in violence against women worldwide (UN)

    Impact 

    1. UN Women- 1.5 trillion $ loss due to violence on women 
    2. Women impact->impacts child->demographic dividend 
    3. Failure of protection of HR 
    4. Reduces gains achieved in past years 
    5. Suicides

    Way forward 

    1. Gender auditing and perspective during crisis 
    2. UN Women- strengthen services like helpline, digital counsellor, online reporting

     - message from law enforcement officers to reassure women and against men. Eg Mumbai police on Twitter 

     - women part of decision making process to have inclusive outcomes 

    Holistic. Makes this topic complete. 

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    @rashiv 

    Next? I suggest,

    Internal Migration - Causes, Impact, Govt policies

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    How reverse migeration affected the condition of  female labour population of India. What approach govt and other sectors should have  taken to mitigate the situation?

    - Rural India is incapable of absorbing the estimated migrant labour. Burden on scarce resources to increase, disguised employment in agriculture, reduced wages for labor in rural areas due to abundance of labor.

    - Rural households, particularly those with migrating family members, lose out on income due to reduction in remittances and limited employment opportunities in the short term. Women resort to distress sales of their assets, such as livestock, or are forced to take loans from informal moneylenders.

    - Single migrant women working as domestic helps, in salons, in restaurants, shop assistants will not find jobs matching their skill in rural areas. 

    - number of women trafficking for sexual exploitation increases. Women migrants generally have limited access to information about rules and regulations and very often fail to get the required help in cases of exploitation.

    -Women registered to claim access to benefits at one location lose access upon migration to a different location. This is especially true of access to entitlements under the PDS. 

    There is a need to develop a migration management system . An app for Laborers where they can register with their Names, Age, Skill, Gender, Address at the origin. It will help the state governments to manage the migration streams, help in getting employment, ensure the safety and security of the laborers and track them in the times of crisis. This intervention can be particularly useful for ensuring the safety of female migrant labourers. The success of Arogya Setu app to track COVID cases is an encouraging example of how people are willing to adopt such initiatives.

    Article 19(1)(e) of the Constitution, guarantees all Indian citizens the right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India. Thus, it is incumbent upon the govts to provide for and protect for its populace. 


    6.5k views
    Q.Constitutional secularism is the cornerstone of India's pluralistic society. Comment. 150/200
    4.3k views
    Q.Constitutional secularism is the cornerstone of India's pluralistic society. Comment. 150/200

    Secularism refers to distinction from religious matters. Constitutional secularism refers to the constitutional backing of the idea of secularism, example, SECULAR word in preamble of Indian constitution via 42nd AA 1976.


     A pluralistic society, is a society where people having different kind of faiths, religious beliefs and practices co-exist and live peacefully. It is a society which is more tolerant, peaceful, and humane.


    Constitutional secularism in India has led to existence of a pluralistic society in the following ways:-

    1. Backing of idea of secularism by a written Indian constitution, eg Preamble of Indian Constitution referring India as a SECULAR country along with the Fundamental duty of abiding by the constitution under part 4A has led to its acceptance and practice among the citizens.
    2. Provisions of Fundamental rights under part 3 of IC under article 25 to 28 have enabled Indian citizens to profess, practice and propagate any religion that they wish to.
    3. The difference between Indian Secularism from that of the western secularism, in the sense that apart from being clearly separated from the religious affairs in case of Western secularism, Indian state do take part in religious affairs of the country but with a positive attitude and this has resulted in equal treatment to all religions present in India. For eg, Indian state provides concessions to Islam followers for Haj pilgrimage, Indian state recently constructed the Kartarpur corridor on Indian side to facilitate Sikh pilgrimage, Indian state is developing the Char Dham route and likewise. All these mentioned examples reflect that all religions are equal in the eyes of Indian state which is an essential feature of Indian Secularism.
    4. The concept of Fraternity in Indian Constitution along with the concept of secularism has further strengthened the bonhomie among citizens of India having  different beliefs and faiths. Such brotherhood is clearly reflected when a Muslim family decorates their house on the occasion of Diwali, when a Hindu friend visits a Muslim friend’s house on the occasion of Eid to have biryani and sewai, when people of all faiths are served langar at community kitchens at Gurduwaras.
    5. Adoption and practice of ancient philosophies such as Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam and Athithi Devo Bhawa have attracted  foreigners too to India to seek mental peace and spirituality eg places such as Haridwar, Varanasi, golden temple, Fatehpur sikri, Jama Masjid etc.


    India has come a long way post  the 200 years of Divide and rule policy under the imperialist regime but still certain issues like oppression of lower castes, communalisation of politics, hate speeches and mob lynching are still plaguing the very peacefulness of this pluralistic Indian society. Steps such as effective implementation of Manual scavenging act 2013, criminalisation of mob lynching and curbing of circulation of fake news and hate speeches are all warranted.


    That is a very crisp answer. Some points for value addition from my notes:

    1. Ideal of secularism for India denotes equality among various religious communities as interpreted by the Supreme Court in the Ismail Faruqui v. Union of India judgment.

    2. Constitutional secularism cannot be sustained by governments alone but requires collective commitment from an impartial judiciary, a scrupulous media, civil society activists, and an alert citizenry - which are all the foundations of a healthy democracy. 

    I feel, a one liner needs to be added that constitution is the guiding force. Secularism as a value should be followed by citizens, wherein they respect plurality of cultures and ideas. 

    @AlexanderSupertramp This question can be in GS1/2. You can quote these articles and judgements for GS2. 

    As far as GS1 is concerned, we can rely on examples apart from the ones quoted by@TheNotorious . In The Discovery of India, Jawaharlal Nehru traced back the evolution of India’s composite culture through millennia of cultural osmosis. The State Emblem of India, the Lion Capital of Ashoka, from 250 BCE at Sarnath, has Buddhist roots. 

    3.7k views
    Q: Raising the legal age of marriage displays a lack of understanding of the reasons for the low age of marriage for women in India, which have little to do with the law. Comment. 
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    boht boht shukriya madam for the feedback as well as VAM.
    plus congratulations for getting mentioned in the Sunday’s answer writing session conducted by the one and only “I ain’t no knight” Sir. :D :P


    What is that? I am not aware.

    4.8k views
    boht boht shukriya madam for the feedback as well as VAM.
    plus congratulations for getting mentioned in the Sunday’s answer writing session conducted by the one and only “I ain’t no knight” Sir. :D :P


    What is that? I am not aware.

    Have tagged you at two different threads. Kindly check.

    I did not get a notification. Can you please share the link?

    4.7k views
    Q.Constitutional secularism is the cornerstone of India's pluralistic society. Comment. 150/200

    Secularism refers to distinction from religious matters. Constitutional secularism refers to the constitutional backing of the idea of secularism, example, SECULAR word in preamble of Indian constitution via 42nd AA 1976.


     A pluralistic society, is a society where people having different kind of faiths, religious beliefs and practices co-exist and live peacefully. It is a society which is more tolerant, peaceful, and humane.


    Constitutional secularism in India has led to existence of a pluralistic society in the following ways:-

    1. Backing of idea of secularism by a written Indian constitution, eg Preamble of Indian Constitution referring India as a SECULAR country along with the Fundamental duty of abiding by the constitution under part 4A has led to its acceptance and practice among the citizens.
    2. Provisions of Fundamental rights under part 3 of IC under article 25 to 28 have enabled Indian citizens to profess, practice and propagate any religion that they wish to.
    3. The difference between Indian Secularism from that of the western secularism, in the sense that apart from being clearly separated from the religious affairs in case of Western secularism, Indian state do take part in religious affairs of the country but with a positive attitude and this has resulted in equal treatment to all religions present in India. For eg, Indian state provides concessions to Islam followers for Haj pilgrimage, Indian state recently constructed the Kartarpur corridor on Indian side to facilitate Sikh pilgrimage, Indian state is developing the Char Dham route and likewise. All these mentioned examples reflect that all religions are equal in the eyes of Indian state which is an essential feature of Indian Secularism.
    4. The concept of Fraternity in Indian Constitution along with the concept of secularism has further strengthened the bonhomie among citizens of India having  different beliefs and faiths. Such brotherhood is clearly reflected when a Muslim family decorates their house on the occasion of Diwali, when a Hindu friend visits a Muslim friend’s house on the occasion of Eid to have biryani and sewai, when people of all faiths are served langar at community kitchens at Gurduwaras.
    5. Adoption and practice of ancient philosophies such as Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam and Athithi Devo Bhawa have attracted  foreigners too to India to seek mental peace and spirituality eg places such as Haridwar, Varanasi, golden temple, Fatehpur sikri, Jama Masjid etc.


    India has come a long way post  the 200 years of Divide and rule policy under the imperialist regime but still certain issues like oppression of lower castes, communalisation of politics, hate speeches and mob lynching are still plaguing the very peacefulness of this pluralistic Indian society. Steps such as effective implementation of Manual scavenging act 2013, criminalisation of mob lynching and curbing of circulation of fake news and hate speeches are all warranted.


    That is a very crisp answer. Some points for value addition from my notes:

    1. Ideal of secularism for India denotes equality among various religious communities as interpreted by the Supreme Court in the Ismail Faruqui v. Union of India judgment.

    2. Constitutional secularism cannot be sustained by governments alone but requires collective commitment from an impartial judiciary, a scrupulous media, civil society activists, and an alert citizenry - which are all the foundations of a healthy democracy. 

    I feel, a one liner needs to be added that constitution is the guiding force. Secularism as a value should be followed by citizens, wherein they respect plurality of cultures and ideas. 

    @AlexanderSupertramp This question can be in GS1/2. You can quote these articles and judgements for GS2. 

    As far as GS1 is concerned, we can rely on examples apart from the ones quoted by@TheNotorious . In The Discovery of India, Jawaharlal Nehru traced back the evolution of India’s composite culture through millennia of cultural osmosis. The State Emblem of India, the Lion Capital of Ashoka, from 250 BCE at Sarnath, has Buddhist roots. 

    can you share any compilation of important SC judgements with respect to various topics in news?

    I have some handy right now from a compilation I downloaded sometime back.

    • SR Bommai: Kept a check on the powers under Article 356.
    • Keshavananda Bharati: Propounded the concept of Basic Structure of the Constitution
    • Waman Rao, Minerva Mills: Upheld that Judicial review is part of the basic structure
    • I.R. Coelho: Clarified the limits of Ninth Schedule of the Constitution and upheld importance of basic structure
    • Navtej Singh Johar: Stuck down Sec 377 of IPC 
    • Maneka Gandhi: Interpreted scope of Art 21 and gave the concept of due process of law
    • Shreya Singhal: Struck down Sec 66A of IT Act, 2000
    • Puttaswamy (Privacy case): Upheld Right to privacy as a fundamental right
    • Lily Thomas: On disqualification of convicted elected representatives 
    • Shah Bano Begum: Gave precedence to individual rights over personal laws.
    6.1k views
    » show previous quotes

    Constitutional secularism, in the Indian context, refers to the Indian adaptation of the ideal of secularism. It is located in the Preamble and Articles 14, 15, 17, 19, 21 and 25-28 (Fundamental Rights) of the Constitution of India.

    In the Indian Constitution, secularism does not mean that the State is blind to religion. Instead, it means that the State recognises and respects all religions. 

    How it is the cornerstone of Indian Pluralistic society 

    1. It recognises the deeply spiritual nature of the Indian citizen, of religious sects and of religions.

    2. This spiritual nature is seen as part of individual and collective identity which shaped our composite culture.

    3. Freely professing, practicing, and propagating religion is seen as an aspect of life and personal liberty under Article 21. (Puttaswamy v. UoI)

    4. State equally promotes all religions (Eg. Haj Subsidy for Muslims, Kartarpur Corridor for Sikhs, Chardham Project for Hindus) to promote individual liberty. This enables the full development of the individual and of the religious group.

    5. Discrimination existing within religions (A. 17) and diversity within religions (A.26) is recognised to enable independent development of such groups, which have a unique culture of their own.

    6. In case of violation of these rights, a remedy to approach the Supreme Court is provided for in Article 32. 

    However, in order for these protections to be meaningful, constitutional morality must be imbibed in the hearts and minds of each individual. Otherwise, when the practices of religions come in conflict, these fundamental rights may be rendered meaningless. 

    Therefore, beyond the mere text, it is also our constitutionalism that serves at the heart of our pluralistic society.


     

    Yourreadingof law is superb. Awesome way how you've put your answer. 

    5.2k views
    Q: Raising the legal age of marriage displays a lack of understanding of the reasons for the low age of marriage for women in India, which have little to do with the law. Comment. 

    Pointers in brief below:

    Reasons for low age of marriage for women in India:

    1. Society imposes a very high cost of raising girl child, especially in poor Indian families, which attempt to reduce those costs by marrying daughters off at a young age. Correlated with high preference for sons. 

    2.  Families prefer to find brides within their own caste group/community, marriage-aged men look for younger female brides within their community.

    3. Girls are often married off at a younger age because less dowry is expected for younger brides.

    4. Girls are promised in marriage before they are born in order to secure their future. Upon adolescence, send-off ceremonies take place and they are sent to their husband’s home to commence married life.

    5. Lack of Education and beliefs like paraya dhan make families assume that girl’s productive capacities benefit her marital family. Educating daughters is therefore seen as less of a priority than educating sons and hence, early marriage. 

    6. Customs like Atta Satta - It happends, where the parents of a boy cannot find their son a bride, they trade their daughter for a girl that will marry the son.

    7. Fear of violence against women

    8. Clash and inconsistency of personal religion laws which with Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006. 

    Myriad reasons economic, social, traditional, lack of education, stigma of unwed daughters choosing their life partner on their own, inability to protect unwed girls from unwanted sexual advances, belief that marriage is safer contribute to this problem.

    A U.N. report released in late April predicted that COVID-19 could lead to an additional 13 million child marriages over the next decade all over the world.

    India hosts the world’s largest number of child brides – 23 million, according to a 2019 report by UNICEF

    Steps already undertaken:

    1. Prohibition of Child Marriage Act 2006 imposes a fine and two years in prison for parents marrying off their underage children.

    2. India committed to eliminating child, early, and forced marriage by 2030 in line with target 5.3 of the Sustainable Development Goals.

    3. India acceded to the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1992, which sets a minimum age of marriage of 18, and ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1993, which obligates states to ensure free and full consent to marriage.

    4. Government has also used cash incentives (such as the Dhan Laxmi scheme), adolescents’ empowerment programmes (Kishori Shakti Yojana) and awareness-raising to encourage behavior change related to child marriage.

    Way Forward:

    Approach is to empower and educate all stakeholders — children, village influencers, panchayat leaders, parents, teachers to make change possible at the grassroots. Through Bal Panchayats (children’s councils) officially recognized by Gram Panchayats, we sensitize kids about their rights. This gives them confidence to raise their voices against all forms of exploitations.


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    Q: Raising the legal age of marriage displays a lack of understanding of the reasons for the low age of marriage for women in India, which have little to do with the law. Comment. 

    Pointers in brief below:

    Reasons for low age of marriage for women in India:

    1. Society imposes a very high cost of raising girl child, especially in poor Indian families, which attempt to reduce those costs by marrying daughters off at a young age. Correlated with high preference for sons. 

    2.  Families prefer to find brides within their own caste group/community, marriage-aged men look for younger female brides within their community.

    3. Girls are often married off at a younger age because less dowry is expected for younger brides.

    4. Girls are promised in marriage before they are born in order to secure their future. Upon adolescence, send-off ceremonies take place and they are sent to their husband’s home to commence married life.

    5. Lack of Education and beliefs like paraya dhan make families assume that girl’s productive capacities benefit her marital family. Educating daughters is therefore seen as less of a priority than educating sons and hence, early marriage. 

    6. Customs like Atta Satta - It happends, where the parents of a boy cannot find their son a bride, they trade their daughter for a girl that will marry the son.

    7. Fear of violence against women

    8. Clash and inconsistency of personal religion laws which with Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006. 

    Myriad reasons economic, social, traditional, lack of education, stigma of unwed daughters choosing their life partner on their own, inability to protect unwed girls from unwanted sexual advances, belief that marriage is safer contribute to this problem.

    A U.N. report released in late April predicted that COVID-19 could lead to an additional 13 million child marriages over the next decade all over the world.

    India hosts the world’s largest number of child brides – 23 million, according to a 2019 report by UNICEF

    Steps already undertaken:

    1. Prohibition of Child Marriage Act 2006 imposes a fine and two years in prison for parents marrying off their underage children.

    2. India committed to eliminating child, early, and forced marriage by 2030 in line with target 5.3 of the Sustainable Development Goals.

    3. India acceded to the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1992, which sets a minimum age of marriage of 18, and ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1993, which obligates states to ensure free and full consent to marriage.

    4. Government has also used cash incentives (such as the Dhan Laxmi scheme), adolescents’ empowerment programmes (Kishori Shakti Yojana) and awareness-raising to encourage behavior change related to child marriage.

    Way Forward:

    Approach is to empower and educate all stakeholders — children, village influencers, panchayat leaders, parents, teachers to make change possible at the grassroots. Through Bal Panchayats (children’s councils) officially recognized by Gram Panchayats, we sensitize kids about their rights. This gives them confidence to raise their voices against all forms of exploitations.


    Good points. The conclusion is apt. I heard about atta satta for the first time though. 

    We could add how the world over the age of majority is 18 years and raised age could lead to the criminalisation of couples who choose to marry without their parent's permission before 21years of age. 

    Also, don't you think we should write a few points briefly in favour of raised marriage age like improved nutrition standards, lower maternal and infant mortality, lower stunting-wasting, increased agency among women etc.

    Yes, we can add as a one liner about the benefits of raised marriage age. However, the focus should be on the social issues that lead to early marriage and the fact that it is not a problem of law per se, but the social reasons that contribute to it. 

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    Guys if I plan to use Sanskrit shlokas in my answers(across GS papers/Essays), Do I write it in English or Devanagari?

    Also is it a good/acceptable idea as all these shlokas are basically from the religious scriptures of a religion?

    You must use your medium of answering the paper. Even if you intend to write in Sanskrit, do write the translation in English. 

    One can use them liberally in essays. No issues.

    GS- there's already a word crunch. You will not have the luxury to write shlokas.  

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    The construction of several dams along the Yarlung (Brahmaputra) river on the Chinese side has been a repeated cause for concern for Indian officials and the local people, whose livelihoods and security depend on the river. Explain. 
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    Self-governance at the city or town levels helps accelerate growth. Explain this statement in context of Chola Empire. 
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    Ellensaid

    Self-governance at the city or town levels helps accelerate growth. Explain this statement in context of Chola Empire. 

    Local self-govt was a remarkable feature of Chola administration. The village was the basic unit of administration. Chola officials participated more as advisors and observers. The villages had a village assembly or council known as the Ur or Sabha.Villagers who owned land or belonged to the upper castes were chosen by lot to the councils.


    The council was often divided into a number of small committees and each committee would look after an aspect of the village administration. The revenue of the Chola kingdom came from two sources-taxes on land and taxes on trade. Land tax was generally assessed at one –third of the produce. The actual collection of revenue was done by the village assembly. The intermediary or sometimes a govt officer collected the taxes and passed on the govt’ share. Often a part of revenue was assigned to a temple.


    Hi Ellen. This merely states out the LSG initiatives. You need to mention and explain how that help to accelerate growth. Another shot?

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    Please review. ^_^

    Good structure. However, please avoid generic statements like heavy influence from Hellenistic cultures - you need to elaborate which feature resembles from that culture. Adding more points below:

    Reasons for influence:-

    • After Alexander's invasion Greeks divided and assimilated into the territories
    • Spread of Buddhism during the Ashokan regime to Kandhar in modern day Afghanistan. 

    Central Asian and Roman Influence:

    • Presented in Roman motifs like Triton
    • Buddha in human form is inspired by Roman tradition.

    Greco Bactrian:

    • Greek god as a protector in many images of Buddha in Gandhara
    • Drapery similar to Hellenistic cultures
    • Vajrapani found in the right hand of future Buddha similar to Hercules 
    • Disc shaped halo around Buddha's head indicates Bactrian influence   



    3.1k views

    Need help:

    Is the solution to exercises of  11th Fine arts NCERT available anywhere? Can't find it. If someone can give a link or file, it would be very helpful. 

    Don't have the solutions. If you need help with any question, you can share here. Will try to answer it. 

    6.3k views
    hey, guys just have a generic doubt. Can we use abbreviations in the exam? Like, let's say UNFCCC/UNEP/MP/MLA or do we need to write the full form of orgs etc. Also can we write 30°N instead of 30° North?

    Latitude - yes

    Organizations - IF you are using it more than once, use abbreviation. Write the full form in the first instance. If using only once, please write the full form and abbreviation in bracket.  

    6.2k views

    Alexrsaid

    Dear Friends , I request all of you to kindly mention some of the important topics of Physical Geography to be prepared for upcoming mains(Apart from cyclone, Tsunami, Environmental Geography, cryosphere , oceanography, Industries,Eq, volcano).

    Thank you.

    1. Urban Floods

    2. Polar amplification

    3. Lightning/Side Flash

    4. Locust Swarms (Could be a part of Gs3)

    5. Dams - Hydro Hegemony (in relation to Brahmaputra)

    6. Effect of Local winds on weather

    7. Himalayas importance

    8. Wildfires 

    9. Iron Ore /Steel in Location o fResources

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    Iron/steel Geography 

    Before 1800 A.D. iron and steel industry was located where raw materials, power supply and running water were easily available. Later proximity to coal fields, canals and railways decided the location of iron and steel industry. After 1950, the location of iron and steel industry changed to large areas of flat land near sea ports. Proximity to sea ports was necessary for importing iron ores.

    In India, iron and steel industry developed in areas with good availability of raw materials. All the major steel producing centres are in the Chhotanagpur plateau; spread over four states, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Orissa and Chhattisgarh. Bihlai, Durgapur, Burnpur, Jamshedpur, Rourkela and Bokaro are situated in this region. Other important steel centres are; Bhadravati and Vijay Nagar in Karnataka, Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh and Salem in Tamil Nadu.


    5.5k views
    Reviving this thread. 
    4.7k views
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