Factoids for Prelims 2021 - ForumIAS

Factoids for Prelims 2021

SATHI Initiative

Department of Science & Technology has launched a unique scheme called“Sophisticated Analytical & Technical Help Institutes (SATHI)

These Centres are expected to house major analytical instruments to provide common services of high-end analytical testing, thus avoiding duplication and reduced dependency on foreign sources. SATHI will address the problems of accessibility, maintenance, redundancy and duplication of expensive equipment in our Institutions.

34.5k views

Mallakhamb, Kalaripayattu, Gatka and Thang-Ta are being supported under the vertical of ‘Promotion of Rural and Indigenous/Tribal Games’ under the Khelo India Scheme.

Mallakhamb: origin of Mallakhamb can be traced to the 12th century, where it is mentioned in Manas-Olhas - a classic by Chalukya in 1135 A.D. Modern historians attribute origin to Nashik, Maharastra. 

Kalaripayatu: Kerala

Gatka: Punjab

Thang - Ta: Manipur

34.4k views

River Ujhis a major tributary of River Ravi. Ujh Multipurpose project being constructed in Kathua District of J&K.

34.4k views

Lassa feveris a viral haemorrhagic disease caused by theLassa virus. It’s transmitted through the urine and droppings of infected rats found in most tropical and subtropical countries in Africa. 

34.1k views

Madhavpur Mela of Gujarat

Northern Eastern Region states will participate  during theMadhavpur Mela of Gujaratdue to be held in the first week of April this year. The annual fair is held at Madhavpur Ghed in Porbandar district.

Madhavpur Mela of Gujarat shares its connect to the Mishmi Tribe of Arunachal Pradesh. The Mishmi Tribe traces its ancestry to the legendary King Bhishmak and through him to his daughter Rukmini and Lord Krishna. The festival celebrates the immortal journey which Rukmini undertook from Arunachal Pradesh to Gujarat with Lord Krishna.

32.2k views

The Central Asian Flyway (CAF) coversa large continental area of Eurasia between the Arctic and Indian Oceans and the associated island chains. The Flyway comprises several important migration routes of waterbirds, most of which extend from the northernmost breeding grounds in the Russian Federation (Siberia) to the southernmost non-breeding (wintering) grounds in West and South Asia, the Maldives and the British Indian Ocean Territory.

32.2k views

Betelgeusevaries in brightness because it’s a dying, red supergiant star with a diameter some 700 times larger than our sun.

Betelgeuse, markingOrion'stop left shoulder, is often its brightest star. Red in color, this star is usually the 12th brightest in the entire sky. But it has recently dimmed dramatically to an all time low.

32.1k views

ATLAS

1. Beagle Channel:where the waters of the South Atlantic and Pacific Oceans meet.

2. Drake Passage: channel, connecting and separating the southernmost tip of South America to the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula

34.4k views

Rishi Order of Sufism

Sheikh Nooruddin Noorani, better known asNund Rishifounded TheRishi order of Sufism in Kashmir. 

It coupled Hindu and Buddhist thoughts with the real spirit of Islam. For example, the Islamic word for divinity is ‘devo’ in his teachings; Allah is called ‘bhugi’ which is Kashmiri for ‘bhagwan'. Nund Rishi’s was one of the few indigenous Sufi Orders of India because other Orders were not born in India but in Persia. Even though rishis of Kashmir have some thoughts in common with the Chisti Order, Chistis were originally from Afghanistan.

32.2k views

Rani Avantibai Lodhi, queen of Ramgarh State (Madhya Pradesh) in central India, fought against the British during the 1857 War of Independence. Avantibai Lodhi was the queen of King Vikramaditya Singh of Ramgarh. When Vikramaditya Singh became incapable of handling the affairs of the State due to ill health, Avantibai Lodhi rose to the occasion and took charge of the administration. 

Narmada Valley Development Authority named the dam in Jabalpur district in the honour of freedom fighter Rani Avantibai Lodhi. The Rani Avanti Bai Lodhi Sagar (Bargi) project is major multipurpose project across river Narmada in Madhya Pradesh. 

32.1k views

Siddhantha Shikhamaniis a religious scripture of the Panchacharyas tradition ofVeerashaivas, also known asLingayat



32.1k views

Tangiis a social video sharing app from Area 120, Google’s workshop for experimental products. In which users will get to learn new things and they will also be able to share creative skills 

32.1k views

Earliest epigraphic evidence andSanskritinscription inSouth Indiabelongs to Saptamatrika cult. 

Saptamatrikasare a group of seven female deities worshipped in Hinduism as personifying the energy of their respective consorts. The inscription is in Sanskrit and in Brahmi characters and was issued bySatavahana king Vijaya in 207 A.D.

34.4k views


33.4k views

Kambalais the traditional celebration in rural Karnataka. Kambala is an annual festival celebrated in the Dakshina Kannada district of Karnataka. The festival is dedicated to Lord Kadri Manjunatha, an incarnation of Lord Shiva.

3.8k views

CMS COP 13 Logo is inspired by the traditional ‘KOLAM’ from southern India, which has a profound significance in the context of living in harmony with the nature.

3.8k views

TheIntergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)is an independent intergovernmental body established by States to strengthen the science-policy interface for biodiversity and ecosystem services for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, long-term human well-being and sustainable development. It was established in Panama City, on 21 April 2012 by 94 Governments.  It is not a United Nations body.  United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) provides secretariat services to IPBES.

IPBES currently has over 134 member States. A large number of NGOs, organizations,  private sector conventions and civil society groupings also participate in the formal IPBES process as observers.

3.8k views

Agates of Cambay, special Carnelian stones are mined and polished at Khambat or Cambay in the western state of Gujarat at least since 1,500 AD. Cambay area does not have mineral deposits, the stone is brought from the Rajpipla Hills about 200 kilometres away. Agates have a GI Tag -Gujarat

3.8k views

Bougainvilleis the largest island in the Solomon Islands archipelago. It is part of the Solomon Islands rain forests ecoregion.

97.7% of voters on the Pacific island of Bougainville opted for independence from Papua New Guinea in a referendum held in late November and early December. 

Image result for bougainville map sea

6.1k views

The ILP is an official travel document required to visit four Northeastern states, namely,Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Nagaland.

The Inner Line Permit is an extension of theBengal Eastern Frontier Regulation Act 1873.

3.8k views

Kala Kumbh

With an objective to promote Geographical Indication (GI) crafts and heritage of India the Ministry of Textiles is organisingKala Kumbh - Handicrafts Thematic Exhibitionin various parts of the country through the Office of Development Commissioner (Handicrafts).

3.8k views

State of India's birds 2020

Species that have suffered the highest declines in the past 25+ years:

  • White-rumped Vulture
  • Richard's Pipit
  • Indian Vulture
  • Large-billed Leaf Warbler
  • Pacific Golden Plover
  • Curlew Sandpiper

Species that have increased the most in the past 25+ years:

  • Rosy Starling
  • Feral Pigeon
  • Glossy Ibis
  • Plain Prinia
  • Ashy Prinia
  • Indian Peafowl
4.1k views

Image result for sunda and lombok straits

Chokepoints at theSunda and Lombok straits are viable lines of communication linking the Indian Ocean to Northeast Asia.


3.8k views

Matribhasha Diwasis celebrated on 21st February to promote linguistic and cultural diversity and multilingualism in the world, as well as to spread awareness about languages. Every year UNESCO celebrates International Mother Language Day with a new theme. The theme of this year (2020) is"Languages ​​without Borders"which means languages ​​across/devoid of geographical boundaries.


 

3.3k views

Image result for sabang india

India is developing its maiden deep-sea port in Indonesia'sSabangclose to Andaman and Nicobar Islands making its maiden foray in the southeast Asian amid China’s slew of connectivity plans for ASEAN under BRI.



3.3k views

Mahawatin geographical terms refers to the winter rainfall that occurs in the Western part of India.

This rainfall is non-seasonal, and it occurs as a result of Western Disturbances.

The moisture for these rains comes from the Mediterranian sea and the Atlantic ocean.

These rains also bring along thunder and lightening with them.



3.3k views

Sonbhadrais the only district in India which borders four states, namely Madhya Pradesh in the west, Chhattishgarh in the south, Jharkhand in the south east and Bihar in the northeast.

5.4k views

HGML's main mine is located atHuttiand the satellite mines are atUti and Hirabuddini, all of which are located in the Raichur district. Hutti is an underground mine, Uti is an open-cast mine while Hirabuddini is an exploratory mine.

3.3k views

The two major trans-regional routes of ancient time were known as the UttarapathaandDakshinapatha

The Uttarapatha was the major trans-regional trade route of northern India. It stretched from then north-west across the Indo-Gangetic plains, up to the port of Tamralipti on the Bay of Bengal. The Ashtadhyayi mentions various kingdoms located along it.The Uttarapatha was a land-cum-river route. 

The Dakshinapatha—the great southern trade route—is mentioned in the Artha-shastra, but waso operationalfrom the early historical period. It stretched from Pataliputra in Magadha to Pratishthanao onthe Godavari, and was also connected to ports on the western coas

3.3k views

Nepal has two tri-junctions with India and China. The one in dispute now is atLipulekhin Kalapani, at the border of Uttarakhand with Nepal. India claims Kalapani as a part of Uttarakhand while Nepal depicts the area in its map. The second tri-junction is atJhinsang Chuliin Nepal's east, bordering Sikkim.

3.3k views

Thai Magur fish banned

  • Thai Magur fish was banned by the National Green Tribunal (NGT) in 2000.
  • The presence of Thai Magur in any water body destroys its ecological balance.
  • Thai Magur is a cannibal species that impacts the indigenous biodiversity and in-turn reduces the food base for water birds.
  • The Indian Magur does not engage in cannibalism like the Thai Magur.
  • Thai Magur are fed rotten meat with spinach which pollutes the water bodies. 
  • Thai Magurcarries diseases like Argulosis, commonly known as fish lice. 
  • Thai Magur is also believed to be carcinogenic.
3.4k views

Thai Magur fish banned

  • Thai Magur fish was banned by the National Green Tribunal (NGT) in 2000.
  • The presence of Thai Magur in any water body destroys its ecological balance.
  • Thai Magur is a cannibal species that impacts the indigenous biodiversity and in-turn reduces the food base for water birds.
  • The Indian Magur does not engage in cannibalism like the Thai Magur.
  • Thai Magur are fed rotten meat with spinach which pollutes the water bodies. 
  • Thai Magurcarries diseases like Argulosis, commonly known as fish lice. 
  • Thai Magur is also believed to be carcinogenic.

Carcinogenic means something which causes cancer.

Yes..

3.3k views

Allelopathyis a biological phenomenon where one plant inhibits the growth of another. The word allelopathy derives from two separate words. They are allelon which means "of each other", and pathos which means "to suffer".

Some trees use their allelochemicals to inhibit germination or impede development of nearby plant life. Common trees with allelopathic properties include Black walnut, Maple, Pine and Eucalyptus.

3.3k views

RBI has announced a new liquidity facility underLong Term Repo Operations(LTRO) to inject liquidity in the banking system.

Funds through LTRO will be provided at the repo rate. This means that banks can avail one year and three-year loans at the same interest rate of one day repo.

3.3k views

Operation Twistis the name given to a monetary policy tool that the US Federal Reserve had initiated to influence the prevailing rate of interest in the markets. The tool essentially aims at changing the shape of the yield curve (hence the name — twist) through simultaneous buying and selling of long- and short-term government bonds. In India, the RBI put through its version of Operation Twist recently by buying ₹10,000 crore worth of 10-year government bonds while selling four shorter-term government bonds adding up to the same value. The intent is to moderate high long-term interest rates in the market and bring them closer to the repo rate.

3.3k views

RUCOis a project that plans to convert vegetable oils, animal fats or restaurant grease that has already been used in cooking into biodiesel for running diesel vehicles, or indeed any equipment that uses diesel.

The country’s apex food regulator, the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) in association with the Biodiesel Association of India (BDAI) has recently flagged off the ‘RUCO’ project, short for repurpose used cooking oil.

3.3k views

https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetail.aspx?PRID=1604584


Cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae), too can perform photosynthesis and produce sugar by fixing the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The yield of sugars from cyanobacteria could potentially be much higher than that of land-based crops. Further, unlike plant-based sugars, cyanobacterial biomass provides a nitrogen source in the form of proteins.

3.3k views

Rare diseases includeThalassemia, Haemophilia, Sickle Cell Anaemia and primary immune deficiencyaccording to WHO. 

The health ministry had formulated a national policy on treatment of rare diseases in 2017 after high court told the government to swiftly roll out a comprehensive rare disease treatment policy.

3.3k views

How does Inflight Wifi work?

Two operating systems for airplane WiFi:ground-based and satellite. Air-to-ground WiFi works in a similar way to your cell phone. Airplanes have an antenna located underneath their body, which links up with cell towers. As the aircraft travels, it simply connects to the nearest transmitter on a rolling basis. The airplane becomes a hotspot, so passengers can do everything they would normally do when connected to the Internet, including sending emails, making calls, and even streaming movies. However, this system can’t work when the plane is flying over large expanses of water, like on transatlantic routes. That’s where satellite comes in.

Satellite WiFi uses a network of orbiting satellites to allow a connection. The satellite is linked to ground stations, and the airplane connects using a satellite antenna on the top of the fuselage. Again, the plane uses whichever satellite is nearest as it travels.

3.3k views

Irrawaddy dolphinsreside in estuaries of Chilika lake.Humpback dolphinslive in sea water near the coast at Gahirmatha. Many Irrawaddy dolphins migrated to Chilika Lake from Gahrimatha this year. Erratic and untimely rain due to climate change reduced the saltiness of sea water, due to which humpback dolphins migrated into the deep sea as well. 

3.4k views

Dakhni is an Indo-Aryan languagewhose early form was transplanted to the Deccan following Mohammed bin Tughlaq’s decision, in 1327, to move the capital of the Delhi Sultanate over a thousand kilometres south, to Daulatabad.

Classical Dakhni emerged as a literary language with the epic poem “Kadam Rāo Padam Rāo,” written by the poet Fakhruddin Nizamiin the late fifteenth century at Bidar—the capital of the Bahmani Sultanate. 

https://caravanmagazine.in/history/the-rise-and-fall-of-dakhni-literature

3.4k views

Cataloniais a semi-autonomous region in north-eastSpainwith a distinct history dating back almost 1,000 years.

Catalonia's drive for independence plunged Spain into its biggest political crisis for 40 years.


3.4k views

European Commission (EC) launched the ‘United for Biodiversity’ coalition made up of zoos, aquariums, botanical gardens, national parks, and natural history and science museums from around the world, on World Wildlife Day 2020.

The coalition offered the opportunity for all such institutions to “join forces and boost public awareness about the nature crisis, ahead of the crucial COP-15 of the Convention on Biological Diversity in Kunming, China in October 2020,” when nations will adopt a new global framework to protect and restore nature.

3.4k views

Image may contain: outdoor and nature, possible text that says 'pib EK BHARAT SHRESHTHA BHARAT Himachal Pradesh Kerala Rohtang Pass Rohtang Pass is 51 km from Manali on the highway to Keylong/Leh There are beautiful sights of glaciers, peaks and Chandra River flowing down in the Lahaul valley and slightly left twin peaks of the Geypan. Pambadum Shola Pambadum Shola National Park is located in the eastern part of Southern Western Ghats of Kerala which offers an adventure option known as Nature Trail to the Watch Tower.'

3.4k views

Image may contain: text

3.4k views

Mission Solar Charkhais enterprise driven scheme and envisages setting up of ‘Solar Charkha Clusters’ which will have 200 to 2042 beneficiaries (Spinners, Weavers, Stitchers and other skilled artisans).  Each spinner will be given two charkhas of 10 spindles each.

As part of the scheme no subsidy is given, however subsidy to the tune of Rs.9.60 crore is provided for procurement of charkha and looms to the Implementing or Promoting Agency for a full-scale Solar Charkha Cluster.

3.4k views

Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) has been constituted under Section 3(3) of the ‘Environment (Protection) Act, 1986’for the purpose of regulation and control of ground water development and management in the Country.

3.4k views

Tiwatribals celebrateKhelchawafestival inAssam.This festival is celebrated every five years.The festival is held at the close of the harvest season in the month of April.

3.4k views

A new shipping route between the seaport of Kandla in western India and Iran's southernQeshmIsland in the Persian Gulf has been officially established with the arrival of a cargo ship named Neshat. Jazireh-ye Qeshm is an island bordering the NW side of the Strait of Hormuz. Qeshm, the largest island in the Persian Gulf, lying nearly parallel with the coast of Iran, is separated from the mainland by Toreh-ye Khowran (Khuran) (Clarence Strait)


3.4k views

Mission Bhagiratha : Telangana 

River Bhagirathi : Uttarkhand

3.4k views

Bhog certificate: 

Launched in 2018 by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India(FSSAI).

To encourage all places of worship to adopt and maintain food safety and hygiene in preparation, serving and sale of food along with training of food handlers for basic food safety and hygiene.

3.1k views

 GISAID Initiative is widely credited for successfully enabling the rapid sharing of influenza virus data through a unique sharing mechanism, that was recognized for its importance to global health by all G20 health ministers in 2017. The Initiative involves public–private partnerships between the nonprofit organization Freunde von GISAID e.V. and governments of the Federal Republic of Germany, the official host of the GISAID EpiFlu database, providing public access to the most complete collection of genetic sequence data of influenza viruses and related clinical and epidemiological data,Singapore and the United States of America.

3.1k views

Image result for lhunze county

China has begun large-scale mining operations inLhunze county adjacent to Arunachal Pradeshwhere a huge trove of precious minerals valued at about $60 billion has been found.

3.1k views

Coronavirus Dictionary

TheR-naught, or R0,is a virus’s basic reproductive number — an epidemiologic metric used to describe the contagiousness of infectious agents.

Theincubation periodis the time it takes for symptoms to appear after a person is infected. This time can be critical for prevention and control, and it allows health officials to quarantine or observe people who may have been exposed to the virus.

The technical name for the coronavirus isSARS-CoV-2.The respiratory disease it causes has been named the “coronavirus disease 2019,” or COVID-19.

Anepidemicis a regional outbreak of an illness that spreads unexpectedly, according to the WHO. 

3.1k views

The ILP is an official travel document required to visit four Northeastern states, namely,Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Nagaland.

The Inner Line Permit is an extension of theBengal Eastern Frontier Regulation Act 1873.

@upsc2020 Manipur is NOT part of ILP. 

It was included recently

https://www.news18.com/news/india/ilp-comes-into-effect-in-manipur-from-january-1-temporary-permit-to-be-issued-for-15-days-2441705.html

3.1k views

Gaur (Bos Gaurus), the largest extant bovine in the world,have returned to Bihar’s Valmiki Tiger Reserve (VTR), but are also breeding there due to an increase in grassland cover.

VTR was set up in the early 1990s. It is spread over 899 square kilometres in Bihar’s West Champaran district, bordering Nepal’s Chitwan National Park to its north and Uttar Pradesh to its west.

Gaur, which are native to south and southeast Asia, had shifted to Chitwan a few years back due to grassland destruction in VTR. The species is listed as ‘vulnerable’ on the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List of Threatened Species since 1986.

Increasing grasslands in VTR also helps for tiger conservation.

3.1k views

Image result for zoonotic diseases chart

3.1k views

SARS-CoV was transmitted fromcivet cats to humans.

MERS-CoV fromdromedary camels to humans.

3.4k views

Suspension of Members in LS & RS

While the Speaker of Lok Sabha is empowered to place a Member under suspension, the authority for revocation of this order is not vested in Speaker. It is for the House, if it so desires, to resolve on a motion to revoke the suspension.

Unlike the Speaker, however, the Rajya Sabha Chairman does not have the power to suspend a Member.

The Chairman may “name a Member who disregards the authority of the Chair or abuses the rules of the Council by persistently and wilfully obstructing” business. In such a situation, the House may adopt a motion suspending the Member from the service of the House for a period not exceeding the remainder of the session. The House may, however, by another motion, terminate the suspension.

3.1k views

Hanging and shooting are the two methods of death penalty in India. According to the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC), hanging is the method of execution in the civilian court system. The Army Act, 1950, however, lists both hanging and shooting as official methods of execution in the military court-martial system.

3.1k views

Hayabusa2 isan asteroid sample-return mission operated by the Japanese space agency, JAXA. It follows on from the Hayabusa mission and analyzed near-Earth asteroidRyugu.

3.1k views


3.1k views

When separated from the Bengal Presidency in 1912, Bihar and Orissa comprised a single province.From 1912 to 1920 the province had a lieutenant governor heading the provincial government. This post was upgraded to governor in 1920, when Satyendra Prasanno Sinha was appointed to the post.

Later, under the Government of India Act of 1935, the Division of Orissa became a separate provinceand the Province of Bihar came into being as an administrative unit of British India.

3.1k views

Hantavirusinfection is not contagious — it does not spread from human to human. Working or living in arodentinfested setting or breathing dust after cleaning rodent droppings or nests increases the chance of exposure to the virus.

3.1k views

Kish Islandis a located on the north east of the Persian Gulf, southern offshore of the mainland Iran. Recently in news for evacuation during Corona Crisis. 

Image result for Kish island map

3.1k views

Facebook has announced to launch an in-house crypto currency called “Libra” by the first half of 2020.

Libra will be a crypto currency backed by a reserve of real assets to keep its value stable. Crypto currency built on encryption technology is a digital currency that users buy and store from digital wallets. It is not controlled by any central authority, nor is any government interference.

Libras will be stored by Calibraa digital wallet which will be built into WhatsApp and Messenger as well, to let users store and use Libra coins.

3.1k views

Hydroxychloroquine(HCQ) is an anti-malarial drug similar to chloroquine, one of the oldest and best-known anti-malarial drugs, but with lesser side-effects. 

India produces 70 per cent of the world’s supply of hydroxychloroquine. The country has a production capacity of 40 tonnes of HCQ every month, implying 20 crore tablets of 200 mg each. India gets the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) that is used to manufacture HCQ from China.

3.1k views

Shortughai- Harappan trading post in Afghanistan. Connected to Lapiz Lazuli Mines in Afghanistan. 

3.1k views

8th centuryHarivamsha Puranagives a Jaina version of the stories of the Kauravas, Pandavas,

Krishna, Balarama, and others. 

3.1k views

Granthascript: a South Indian script used for writing Sanskrit

3.1k views

Periyapuranam: A 12th century work containing hagiographies of the Nayanmar saints

3.1k views

Food Safety And Standard Authority of India (FSSAI) has introduced+F logofor fortified staple food products such as rice, wheat, oil and milk which will help people to identified which Food products are rich in nutrients. 


3.1k views

Plastisphere to refer to the thin layer of diverse metazoan and microbial life that develops on any piece of plastic in aquatic environments.

3.1k views

Ottanthullalis a relatively lesser-known art form from Kerala. It was created by the 18th century poet and mizhavu percussionist Kunchan Nambiar, who was angered by a Chakiyar Koothu artist’s rebuke for having dozed off during a performance.

3.1k views

Prelims 2020 ki teyari ? May I come In ?

More than welcome!

3.1k views

Dalbergiasissoo orrosewood, as it is commonly known as, is available in abundance in India and is widely preferred in Indian households as the best choice for home furniture.


- Has been asked by UPSC previously. 

- Was in news : https://mediaindia.eu/business/the-commercial-extinction-of-indian-rosewood-from-global-market/

3.6k views

Negative pricingcan occur when demand for a commodity drops to an extent that suppliers are prepared to pay others to take it away, in effect setting the price to a negative number. This phenomenon has occurred in electricity prices, natural gas prices, and sour crude oil prices.

Negative prices are a signal to either increase demand or reduce supply. 

3.6k views
The first book printed in India in an Indian language "Thambiran Vanakkamin"in 1578 was a translation of a Portuguese book in Tamil. 
3.6k views
Jhum cultivationis one of the most ancient system of cultivation believed to have originated in theNeolithicperiod. The system is regarded as the first step in transition from food gathering and hunting to food production.
3.6k views
A new variety of wheat calledHD-3226orPusaYashasviwas released by the Indian Agricultural 
Research Institute.

It has higher levels of resistance against major rust fungi such as the yellow/stripe, brown/leaf and black/stem.
3.7k views
Artificial leafis capable of producing a widely-used gas without the consumption or combustion of fossil fuels. Syngas is used to make all kinds of products and commodities, such as fertiliser, fuel, pharmaceuticals and plastics, but it’s currently made by burning oil or gas.
3.6k views
Bank of Natural Capital is an educational initiative associated with The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB)to communicate natural capital investment and value theory related to what are sometimes called "economic intangibles" to the global public, in particular the direct economic and financial value of ecosystem services to man.
3.6k views
Forest Advisory Committee

It is a statutory body which was constituted by the Forest (Conservation) Act 1980.

It comes under the Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Change (MoEF&CC).

It considers questions on the diversion of forest land for non-forest uses such as mining, industrial projects, townships and advises the government on the issue of granting forest clearances. 

However, its role is advisory.
3.6k views


3.5k views
Styreneis a flammable liquid that is used to make polystyrene plastics, fiberglass, rubber, and latex.It occurs naturally in some fruits, vegetables, meats, nuts, and beverages.

Styrene is used to make:

  • Insulation
  • Pipes 
  • Automobile parts
  • Printing cartridges and copy machine toner
  • Food containers
  • Packaging
  • Carpet backing
  • Luggage
  • Shoes
  • Toys
  • Floor waxes and polishes
Cigarette smoke and vehicle exhaust contain styrene.

  • Where is Styrene found?

    • Consumer products – cigarettes, and many packaging, household, and building products
    • Air – emissions from styrene-based products, cigarettes, vehicle exhaust, and copy machines
    • Food and water – containing styrene from naturally occurring sources or contamination
3.7k views


Astronomers have spotted the closest black hole to Earth ever discovered.

This triple system, calledHR 6819, can be seen from Earth’s southern hemisphere with the naked eye, in the constellation Telescopium. Until now, the closest-known black hole was one perhaps three times further away.

The black hole, at least 4.2 times the mass of the sun, is gravitationally bound to two stars in a so-called triple system roughly 1,000 light years from Earth.

Black holes are extraordinarily dense objects possessing gravitational pulls so powerful that not even light can escape. Some are monstrous like the one at our galaxy’s center - 26,000 light years from Earth that is four million times the sun’s mass. 



4.2k views

Bats 

  • There are 1,400 species of bats around the world, and 128 in India. The most common ones that people see in India are the large Common Indian flying fox, the short-nosed fruit bat (half the size of flying fox), and pipistrelles which are very small.
  • Most of these bats feed on fruit, while the pipistrelle eats flies, mosquitos and moths. 
  • People avoid bat colonies because of the chance of fungal infections just like you would get from pigeon faeces, or from the droppings of other animals.
  • Rice plantations to mangroves to even the mahua tree — are dependent on bats. They are pollinators, seed dispersers and pest controllers.
  • Bats are not blind, they just prefer echolocation to sight because it is easier and faster in the darkness.
  • Echolocation is the process of using ultrasound and its echoes (instead of rays of light) to gauge where objects are placed and of what size they are.
  • Bats use it to navigate their routes, find foods such as insects, and even objects as fine as the human hair.
  • Chiropterologists - Someone who studies bats 
4.1k views
Deep sea is characterised by high pressure, extreme temperatures and absence of light (Aphotic zone) 

3 Main sources of energy & nutrients for deep sea community:-

1)Marine Snow- Constant fall all of organic detritus from upper layers. Marine Snow consists of bits of aggregates of algae, microorganisms, etc.

2)Chemosynthesisat hydrothermal vents & cold seeps - Occurrence of biological conversion of Carbon molecules & nutrients into organic matter using oxidation of inorganic compounds in absence of sunlight. 

3)Whale falls-  when the carcass of a whale falls onto the ocean floor in the abyssal zones. On the sea floor, these carcasses can create complex localized ecosystems that supply sustenance to deep-sea organisms for decades.
4k views

Kashmir saffronhas been given the GI tag by the Geographical Indications Registry. It is grown in the highlands of Jammu and Kashmir, including in places like Pulwama, Budgam, Kishtwar and Srinagar. Kashmir saffron is cultivated and harvested in the Karewa (highlands) of Jammu and Kashmir.

Saffron cultivation is believed to have been introduced in Kashmir by Central Asian immigrants around 1st Century BCE. In ancient Sanskrit literature, saffron is referred to as ‘bahukam’. 

It is the only saffron in the world grown at an altitude of 1,600 m to 1,800 m AMSL (above mean sea level), which adds to its uniqueness and differentiates it from other saffron varieties available the world over. 

Iran is currently the largest producer of Saffron. India is a large importer of the same. 


4k views


3.9k views


3.9k views

X-37B plane recently launched by USA likely to test this technology.

3.9k views
Locusts are large herbivorous insectsthat can
be pests of agriculture due to their
ability to form dense and highly mobile
swarms. 

India has a locust control and research scheme that is being implemented through the Locust Warning Organisation (LWO), established in 1939 and amalgamated in 1946 with the Directorate of Plant Protection Quarantine and Storage (PPQS) of the Ministry of Agriculture, according to the PPQS. The LWO’s responsibility is monitoring and
control of the locust situation in Scheduled Desert Areas, mainly in Rajasthan and
Gujarat, and partly in Punjab and Haryana.
3.7k views
Gujili paatuis a type of subaltern literature that existed in Tamil Nadu from the mid-19th Century to the 1950s.
Written by the common man in typical songbook that had not more than 10 pages and recorded the important news events.

Gujili paatu gets its name from the Gujili market in George Town, where the songbooks were sold.
The songs gave accurate information about events that unfolded, from a common man’s perspective. The songs were written incolloquial Tamil which makes them even more relatable.
3.6k views


Hope Spots are special places that are critical to the health of the ocean.

Hope Spots are about recognizing, empowering and supporting individuals and communities around the world in their efforts to protect the ocean.

Sylvia Earle (founder of Mission Blue, a non-profit organization) introduced the concept of Hope Spot in 2009.

Hope Spots can be Marine Protected Areas(MPA) that need attention or new sites. 

Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep islands -  The two groups of islands are the first places in India to have been added in the list of global hope spots.

This recognition was given by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and Mission Blue, an organization involved in the study of oceans.

There are 76 Hope Spots worldwide.
3.5k views
Permafrostis any ground that remains completely frozen—32°F (0°C) or colder—for at least two years straight. These permanently frozen grounds are most common in regions with high mountains and in Earth’s higher latitudes—near the North and South Poles. Permafrost is made of a combination of soil, rocks and sand that are held together by ice. The soil and ice in permafrost stay frozen all year long.
Near the surface, permafrost soils also contain large quantities of organic carbon—a material leftover from dead plants that couldn’t decompose, or rot away, due to the cold. Lower permafrost layers contain soils made mostly of minerals.

Thermoelectric plant at Norilsk, 3,000 km northeast of Moscow, is built entirely on permafrost, whose weakening over the years due to climate change caused the pillars supporting a fuel tank at the plant to sink, leading to loss of containment



3.5k views

Natuna Islandsof Indonesia– an archipelago at the southern reaches of the South China sea – more than 60 Chinese ships trespassed in its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). 

3.5k views
Galwan river, runs 80 km westwards from its origins in Karakoram range through Aksai Chin and east Ladakh to join the Shyok river, a significant tributary of the Indus, is deemed to be of strategic significance in this region, with simmering border tensions between India and China. The valley was also a flashpoint during the 1962 India-China war.

It is named after Ghulam Rassul Galwan, a hardy Ladakhi adventurer and explorer who assisted many famed European explorers at the turn of the 19th century. 


3.4k views
India joined the league of leading economies including USA, UK, EU, Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Republic of Korea, Singapore to launch theGlobal Partnership on Artificial Intelligence(GPAI or Gee-Pay). GPAI is an international and multi-stakeholder initiative to guide the responsible development and use of AI, grounded in human rights, inclusion, diversity, innovation, and economic growth.
3.4k views
Fixation of Minimum Support Price for theMinor Forest Produceis based on the suggestions/ input received from TRIFED & State and declaration ofMSPfor MFP is done by theMinistry of Tribal Affairs.
3.3k views
TheNorthern Limit of Monsoon(NLM) is the northernmost boundary of India up to which Monsoon rains have advanced on any given day.

NLM is directly related to the onset and advance of Monsoon. The term NLM starts flowing right from the onset to the withdrawal of Monsoon.
3.3k views
Key Terms - Mughal Empire

1. Diwan-i-Wazarat - Department of revenue & finances
2. Diwan-i-Arz - Military department
3. Diwan-i-Rasalatmuhtasib - Foreign affairs department
4. Diwan-i-insha - Custodian of govt. papers
5. Diwan-i-quza - Justice department
6. Diwan-i-Barid - Intelligence department
7. Diwan-i-Saman - Department in charge of royal household
8. Diwan - Responsible for all income and expenditure
9. Mir Bakshi - Head of the military department and nobility
10. Mir Saman - Incharge of imperial households (Karkhanas)
11. Diwan-i-Bayutat - Maintained roads, govt. buildings
12  Mir Manshi - Royal correspondence
13. Sadr-us-Sadr - Incharge of charitable & religious endowments
14. Qazi-ul-Quzat - Head of judicial department

4.6k views

Reports Published by IMF(International Monetary Fund)

1. World Economic Outlook (WEO)
2. Global Financial Stability Report (GFSR)
3. Fiscal Monitor (FM)



4.6k views
August Month Yojana on Cultural Diversity would be important. Shall be posting important facts from the same. 
4.3k views

Agogsaid

@upsc2020 Hey hav u read NEP?In tdy article in The Hindu ,the writer says no National Edn commission in policy but i found the same as Rasthriya Shiksha Aayog in latest policy.plz do clarify


Shiksha aayyog was a suggestion in the draft. Hasn't been incorporated in the NEP 2020. 

https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1642061

4.3k views

Thank you. I would have totally missed this. 

4.3k views

Thawra Revolution - Lebanon

Protestors of the ‘thawra’ in Lebanon like their counterparts in the ‘hirak’ in Algeria share common grievances.Lebanese people have been peacefully protesting in the streets against government corruption and the grave economic crisis. The protests started shortly after government attempted to increase taxes on tobacco, petrol and even WhatsApp, which prompted nationwide anger against the country's economic problems, inequality and corruption.

4.2k views

Thawra Revolution - Lebanon

Protestors of the ‘thawra’ in Lebanon like their counterparts in the ‘hirak’ in Algeria share common grievances.Lebanese people have been peacefully protesting in the streets against government corruption and the grave economic crisis. The protests started shortly after government attempted to increase taxes on tobacco, petrol and even WhatsApp, which prompted nationwide anger against the country's economic problems, inequality and corruption.

Yojana?

No. Google. Post the Beirut blasts..

4.1k views
Atabletop runwayis an airport which is located on the top of a plateau and the end of the runway overlooks a deep gorge. There are a total of five tabletop runways in India – Mangalore in Karnataka, Kozhikode in Kerala and Lengpui in Mizoram, Shimla and Kullu in Himachal Pradesh and Pakyong in Sikkim.
4.1k views

Bera, the Rabari Pastoral region in Aravalli hills is the largest concentration of leopards on earth.