Doubt Clearance Thread: UPSC 2021 - ForumIAS

Doubt Clearance Thread: UPSC 2021

@ShinchanNohara Yes. See gist of IR Coelho(2007) case.

What to do in such questions? I am really confused. I know of the IR Coelho case. But, what the statement says

is just the definition of 9th schedule. It has been struck down by the SC as unconstitutional and void, but it is

still present in the constitution, and the clause in the 1st constitutional amendment act still has the same

wording, as constitution has not been amended formally.

For another example, if some question states that under sec 66A of the IT Act, state can punish individuals for statements on internet that has a  grossly offensive or has menacing character, etc..
Would it be considered correct or wrong?

Both ways it can be justified. It is correct because the clause is still present on the statute book and hasn't been removed/amended. Only its implementation has been stopped by declaring the law unconstitutional by the Hon'ble SC. It is wrong because in the Shreya Singhal case, 2015, SC held that the law violates the freedom of speech and expression and the law is too broad to be covered in the reasonable restrictions clause.

 Which approach is correct while marking mcq questions for prelims?

@wonderwoman26 I think the ones which have the same names are adjacent to each other. But, they are distinct, though they might be present in the same district/area. A national park has more protection and hence more authorities/resources are required. Hence, nearby areas which were wildlife santuaries earlier might not get upgraded to national park and only the core area might be upgraded to national park. 

However, this is only an educated guess, and I may be wrong. Let someone confirm this.


@sjerngal Solubility decreases with temperature for any dissolved material or any solvent (liquid in which material is dissolved). Hence, solubility of salt too increases with decrease in temperature of water. 

Using this, we can say that cold water, especially in ocean depths would be more saline. To see this, suppose some more salt is added to the upper layer of ocean (which is saturated), then it will not dissolve in the upper layers, so it will sink down because it cannot float independently without water molecules surrounding it (sort of like what happens in a glass of water). Then, the temperature of lower levels is lower, consequently solubility is more. The salt will keep sinking until such a depth is found where it dissolves into the water. So, the depth of oceans will become more saline in this way.


@mehuifs  Yes, you are correct. I just remembered this explanation somewhere from school, that as kinetic energy increases then, solubility of a gas in liquid decreases, as it becomes more difficult for solvent particles to surround solute particles. I generalized this for solid solutes too. However, it seems that this explanation doesn't work when the solute is solid, as is the case with salt and water. Of course, I forgot that chemistry is not really about learning the rules, or explanations, but the exceptions.

Sorry for the misleading explanation.

@AlexanderSupertramp General elevation from a to b here is supposed to mean that the land sloped downward starting from a towards b. I am not sure whether this is some standard definition or usage of the language or not, but it seems pretty clear from the context.
@EUROPOL On the examples given, I doubt that Ganga and Brahmaputra are antecedent rivers. It is given in NCERT that earlier there used to be a single river instead of 2, and after some tectonic event (which led to formation of present day Meghalaya plateau region), they split into two rivers Ganga and Brahmaputra, contrary to definition #2. Plus, Ganga and Brahmaputra both have their origins in Himalayan glaciers, so probably they won't fit in either of the two definitions.
@EUROPOL Which book is this? I think there is a dispute in this regard amongst the geographers, because NCERT adopts a different view and perhaps because of this reason, it mentions only Kosi as an antecedent river.

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Ganga Brahmputra are certainly antecedent rivers. Prior to the upliftment of Himalayas, the topography and weather pattern of that region would have been drastically different, which may not help us conclusively conclude on the origin of the rivers pre-upliftment. 

However, after the Himalayas were formed, due to the changing weather patterns, the glaciers became a well feeding source for the rivers that cut their way through the mountains. 

Please refer page 24, class 11th NCERT Geography (old) -India: Physical Environment.

It states that:

   Evolution of the Himalayan Drainage

...However, geologists believe that a mighty river called Shiwalik or Indo-Brahma traversed the entire longitudinal extent of the Himalaya from Assam to Punjab and onwards to Sind, and finally discharged into the Gulf of Sind near lower Punjab during the Miocene period some 5-24 million years ago. ...

(On Next paragraph)
It is opined that in due course of time Indo-Brahma river was dismembered into three main drainage systems: (i) the Indus ... (ii) the Ganga ... (iii). the stretch of the Brahmaputra in Assam ...
(Further continuing) The dismemberment was probably due to the Pliestocene upheaval in the Western Himalayas, including the uplift of the Potwar Plateau (Delhi ridge), which acted as the water divide between the Indus and Ganga drainage systems. Likewise, the down-thrusting of the Malda gap area between the Rajmahal hills and the Meghalaya plateau during the mid-pliestocene period, diverted the Ganga and the Brahmaputra systems to flow towards the Bay of Bengal.

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